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Ellingham diagram

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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 35 Ellingham diagram showing standard free energy of formation as a function of temperature for metal oxide systems. Source: Ref 22 More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 1 Ellingham diagram of reactions in oxidation of ferrous materials. Approximate values adapted from Ref 1 and 2 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 16 Modified Ellingham diagram. Source: Ref 27 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 1 Ellingham diagrams of selected oxides as a function of temperature. 1 atm = 101.3 kPa More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 7 Ellingham-Richardson diagram showing standard free energy of formation as a function of temperature for metal oxide systems More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 8 Ellingham-Richardson diagram showing standard free energy of formation as a function of temperature for metal sulfide systems More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) and compounds formed on the metal surface (oxide or sulfide in the examples cited earlier) can be represented by diagrams of the partial pressure of formation versus temperature. Such diagrams, called Ellingham diagrams, allow us to quickly visualize the domains of stability of different oxides. Similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). Graphical displays such as Ellingham diagrams and volatility and predominance diagrams are often used to describe the simplest systems of the type S 1 + G 1 → S 2 + G 2 ( Ref 7 ). For the Ellingham diagrams, all the condensed phases of the reactions are assumed to be pure phases, and therefore, at unit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... above 10 −2 atm, and therefore, the aforementioned reactions are possible from this perspective. Fig. 1 Ellingham diagram of reactions in oxidation of ferrous materials. Approximate values adapted from Ref 1 and 2 It can also be observed that the Ellingham diagram ( Fig. 1 ) suggests...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the thermal decomposition of zirconium and hafnium tetraiodide to produce the metals. Reducing Agents Figures 7 and 8 show the important Ellingham-Richardson diagrams for the metal-metal oxide and metal-metal sulfide systems, respectively. These equilibrium diagrams—along with the vapor-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... or reduction for pure metals can be found graphically using an Ellingham diagram, such as the one shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 3 ). The procedure consists of passing a straight line through the point “O” (upper left-hand corner of the diagram) and a second point that intersects the temperature of interest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., Ellingham diagrams . Aqueous corrosion is the chemical attack by liquids of metal surfaces. Note that prior to exposure to liquids, most metal surfaces are coated with a thin oxide surface due to prior interaction with the atmosphere. Corrosion reactions result in the dissolution of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...% Cr) ∼600 >1000 Source: Ref 6 Thermodynamic Background The modified Lehrer iron-nitrogen diagram ( Fig. 5 ) shows the phase boundaries between ferrite (α), Fe 4 N γ′-nitrides, Fe 2–3 N ε-nitrides, and austenite (γ). Depending on the nitriding potential of the nitriding atmosphere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... equals zero at equilibrium, Δ G 0 =− RT ln K p . Δ G calculations for gas, liquid, solid, or mixtures of these can be calculated and used as the basis to plot Ellingham diagrams of specific reactions such as oxide formation. These diagrams make it easier to visualize and predict what should occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...” in ASM Handbook , Volume 13A, 2003. The standard free energies of formation (Δ G °) of oxides and sulfides as a function of temperatures and the corresponding dissociation pressures of the oxides and sulfides are conveniently summarized in the form of Ellingham/Richardson diagrams, as illustrated in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.9781627081658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... This fact can be readily assessed from the Ellingham diagram of the free energies of formation of the oxidation product. In general, the most reactive or oxygen active (least noble) metals are found in the alkali and alkaline earth (groups IA and IIA of the periodic table), the scandium group IIIA...