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Drawability

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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 15 Effect of temperature on the drawability of 1.63 mm (0.064 in.) AZ31B sheet. Cupping die diameter, 38 mm (1 1 2 in.); radii on draw ring and punch, 5 t . A, temper O; drawing speed, 38 mm (1 1 2 in.)/min. B, temper H24; drawing speed 38 mm (1 1 2 in.)/min More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article illustrates the mechanics of the deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. It discusses the fundamentals of drawing and drawability. Sheet metal is drawn in either hydraulic or mechanical presses. The article summarizes the defects in drawing and factors considered in press...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 Variation of strain ratio r with direction in low-carbon steel (top curves) and effect of average strain ratio r ¯ on drawability of cylindrical cups (bottom). Each cup represents the deepest cup that can be drawn from material with the indicated r ¯ . More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006688
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... the lower strength and drawability of alloy 3003 and the high strength of 3004. The alloy contains approximately 0.5% Mg and 1.1% Mn ( Table 1 ) and is produced for light gauge sheet applications such as lamp bases and shoe eyelets. In Europe, it is also used for some drawn rigid and semirigid containers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... deformation processing. This phenomenon is typically observed in metals and alloys with poor quality. An important beneficial effect of anisotropy is in deep drawing of sheet metals whereby the deep drawability increases with increasing normal anisotropy. On the other hand, planar anisotropy causes earing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., the inside of the die is heated to a higher temperature than the outside. Drawability Annealed magnesium alloy sheet can be cold drawn to a maximum reduction (blank diameter to cup diameter) of 15 to 25%. With heat, drawability is greatly improved, and up to 70% reduction is possible. The drawability...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to inside diameter of cup) obtainable in deep drawing range from 40 to 60% for the chromium-nickel (austenitic) stainless steels of best drawability and from 20 to 30% for the straight-chromium (ferritic) grades. The amount of reduction obtainable varies greatly with the radius of the die and to a lesser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... aluminum to above medium-carbon steel in strength and work-hardening rate. A comparison of limiting draw ratio with the plastic-strain ratio ( r ) for ferrous and nonferrous alloys is shown in Fig. 12 . Increasing values of r and LDR reflect increasing drawability (see the section “Drawing and Stretch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... High n and m values lead to good formability in stretching operations but have little effect on drawability. In a drawing operation, metal in the flange must be drawn in without causing fracture in the wall. In this case, high n and m values strengthen the wall, which is beneficial...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.../casting practices, including vacuum degassing. Steels with very low interstitial content exhibit excellent formability with low yield strength (138 to 165 MPa, or 20 to 24 ksi), high elongation (41 to 45%), and good deep drawability. With the addition of carbonitride-forming elements, the deep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...) and interstitial (carbon, nitrogen) alloying elements added to a standard 300-series alloy, the lower the resultant work-hardening rate and the more deep drawable the alloy. In recent years, copper additions of 0.5 to 4.0% have been added to effect such a reduction. In large part, the higher work-hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... synthesized as a powder Its fusion (it is indeed a noncongruent fusion) occurs at high temperatures [>1500 °C, or 2730 °F ( Ref 18 )] Therefore, the available processing technique is the powder metallurgy one. Its principle is to fit the powder into a drawable casing and then to draw the whole set...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... applications, kitchen equipment, plumbing, futures, and lithographic sheet, and pressure vessels and piping. Typical uses of Alclad 3003 is farm roofing and siding. Packaging and cooking utensils capitalize on its deep drawability in the O temper. Alloy 3003 heavy-gauge foil is also produced in large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... for cooling Corrosion, low formability Precoating Wax Paraffin, metal soap, saturated fatty acid Single drawing Easy to coat Not suitable for multistage process, insufficient heat resistance. Resin Resin emulsion, acrylic resin emulsion, phenol resin Single drawing High drawability, clean...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-clad steel used in bullet jackets. In this case, the brass cladding provides the drawability that allows steel to be used as a bullet jacket with improved strength, aerodynamics, and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. Designing Clad Metals for Corrosion Control Clad metals designed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... to the major stretch axis, while the formability of the weaker base material is the limiting factor when the weld is normal to the stretch axis. It was also shown that stretch flangeability drops by 25 to 30% compared to the base material because of the presence of the weld, while deep drawability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
..., a product that requires moderate strength (H24 or H25 temper), low earing, and excellent drawability. Alloy 8111 alloy has slightly wider silicon limits and lower iron. Chemical composition limits for common 8<italic>xxx</italic> aluminum foil alloys Table 5 Chemical composition limits for common 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... drawability. The major concern is to avoid excessive annealed grain size, which greatly reduces toughness. Anneal at the higher end of the range only if the loss of toughness associated with large grain size is not a concern. Stabilizing anneals are normally unnecessary for stabilized ferritics as their high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... exhibit excellent formability with low yield strength (138 to 165 MPa, or 20 to 24 ksi), high elongation (41 to 45%), and good deep drawability. With the addition of carbonitride-forming elements, the deep drawability and the nonaging properties are further improved. Bake-Hardening Steels Bake...