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DRA systems

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (P/M) techniques. This article begins with a summary of general observations on the forging of discontinuously reinforced composites. It provides information on some of the specific experimental results obtained on various DRA systems, including 2xxx DRA alloys and cast DRA alloys. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Toughness of DRA Systems To the extent possible, this section summarizes published data about the effects of systematic changes in reinforcement volume fraction, reinforcement size, and similar parameters on the resulting toughness of DRA. Figures 22 and 23 summarize the effects of reinforcement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... applications for aeronautical systems, which are covered here, and space systems, which are covered elsewhere in this Section. Many important applications of DRA are established in aeronautical systems for thermal management and electronic packaging, but these are covered elsewhere in this Section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... that the formation of detrimental reaction products is prevented. There is a continued interest in the development of cast DRA, with the objective of achieving good strength, ductility, and fracture toughness at lower cost. Alcan has conducted a considerable amount of work on DRA materials with two alloy systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... material cost of cast iron or steel is less than $0.60/kg ($0.25/lb), and discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) cast ingot currently costs about $3.30 to 4.40/kg ($1.50 to 2.00/lb) for large-scale production, so that the raw material cost of MMCs is higher than that of the material typically replaced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... characteristics for various materials systems. Note the high amount of anisotropy (or directional dependence) in composite materials, which can be exploited to create extremely lightweight structures. DRA, discontinuously reinforced aluminum; DRTi; discontinously reinforced titanium; Q/I, quasi-isotropic; P...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (or cast) metal composites. In between lie medium-priced composites, including those produced by preform infiltration and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques. Fig. 1 The material cost versus performance of various aluminum-matrix composites. DRA, discontinuously reinforced aluminum The most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... Liquid-phase processing and cast solidification is the most common method of producing discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) alloy MMCs. The reinforcement phase is incorporated in the liquid metal either by stir casting or melt infiltration, as discussed in this article. The melt is then solidified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... volume fraction of hard primary-silicon particles in the microstructure, and they are often used in applications requiring a high degree of wear resistance, such as pistons, cylinder liners, brake systems components, and transmission servo pistons. Matrix-hardening alloys (2 xx .0 and 355.0 families...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...., impurity, ash content, etc.). (b) Theoretical value for graphite; density values for bulk graphite range from 1.3–1.9 g/cm 3 . Source: Ref 5 , 6 Properties of Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum Composites Discontinuously reinforced Al-MMCs, or DRAs, are the most widely applied commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... According to the “American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum,” ANSI H35.1, the designation is different for these two main groups and is summarized in Table 1 . Some alloys respond to precipitation or age hardening, induced by a proper heat treatment described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of discontinuously reinforced composites (DRCs) is influenced by the morphology of particles, both in the elastic and elastic-plastic domain. Most of the applications of DRCs have been with discontinuously reinforced aluminum alloys (DRAs). The particle shapes of alumina or SiC reinforcements, employed most often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... true for silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum (often called Al/SiC in the electronic packaging industry and discontinuously reinforced aluminum, or DRA, in the aerospace industry), which is one of the most important of the new composite packaging materials. In the following sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-matrix composites (DRA MMCs) have been synthesized and subsequently bulk formed by a variety of techniques. The majority of MMCs have been based on aluminum matrices with silicon carbide particulate or whisker reinforcements synthesized in tonnage quantities by I/M or P/M approaches. In the I/M method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.9781627081733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of various aluminum-matrix composites. DRA, discontinuously reinforced aluminum Aluminum MMC Designation System Because more aluminum MMCs are produced than MMCs of all other matrix alloys combined, the Aluminum Association (AA) developed a standard designation system for MMCs that has since been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... used reinforcement materials in discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) composites are silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Consequently, this article focuses on composites that incorporate these specific materials. A review of Al-MMC joining technology up to 1975 is provided in Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of Monolithic Metals and Composites , Intrinsic and Extrinsic Fracture Mechanisms in Inorganic Composites , Lewandowski J.J. , and Hunt W.H. Jr. , Ed., TMS , 1995 , p 147 – 157 20. Lewandowski J.J. and Singh P.M. , Fracture and Fatigue of DRA Composites , Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of a few decades ago. Worldwide sourcing of materials, multinational operations of many companies, and proliferation of the use of the Système International d'Unités (SI) (the “metric system”) place new demands on the searcher, compiler, and disseminator of materials information. It is also important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5