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Condensers (liquefiers)

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...; the two principal ones are: Steam reforming of natural gas or other light hydrocarbons (natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha). Modified steam reforming using excess air in the secondary reformer and heat-exchange autothermal reforming are also being used to some extent. Partial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of strength limitations. Admiralty brass (C44300) tubes have been extensively used in water-cooled condensers and coolers at most refineries. However, in general, copper alloys suffer accelerated corrosion in both acidic and alkaline environments containing sulfur species. Therefore, they have often performed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Hazards in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres” NFPA 53 “Non-Flammable Medical Gas Systems” NFPA 56F “Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases” ANSI/NFPA 58 “Scheme for Identification of Piping” ANSI A13.1 American National Standards Institute 25 West 43rd St., 4th floor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... on bisphenol A. Bisphenol A (bisphenol acetone) is prepared by the acid-catalyzed condensation reaction of acetone (CH 3 ) 2 C=O with two equivalents of phenol (thus bisphenol): ( CH 3 ) 2 C = O + 2 C 6 H 5 OH → ( CH 3 ) 2 C ( C 6 H 4 OH ) 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... to increasing temperature changes the material from a relatively hard, glossy molecular structure to a softer, rubbery structure. The temperature at which this transition occurs is also a range but usually wider, generally 2 to 5 °C (5 to 10 °F) or more, and the material does not melt or liquefy. On application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... be used to fully decompose or volatilize the corrosive constituents. Caution is necessary to prevent undecomposed flux from spreading to insulating sleeving. Care must also be taken when soldering in closed systems where corrosive fumes can condense on critical parts of the assembly. Flux Evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... from the gas phase and condense on the bare sites is equal to the rate at which molecules evaporate from occupied sites. In 1938 Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller extended uo;s kinetic monolayer adsorption theory to a multilayer adsorption theory. The following relationship was derived to calculate...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is illustrated in the following. Given the gas phase chemical reaction: (Eq 14) 2 H 2 + O 2 = 2 H 2 O the equilibrium constant is: (Eq 15) K 14 = p H 2 O 2 p H 2 2 p O 2 Activity and Condensed Phase Equilibrium Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... be baked at a metal temperature ranging from 175 to 230 °C (350 to 450 °F). Coating must be applied in a thin film (approximately 0.025 mm, or 1 mil) and partially baked between coats. Multiple thin coats are necessary to allow water from the condensation reaction to be removed. Cured coating is difficult...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... as condensate from the gas stream for removal through a condensate trap. The amount of moisture in the cooled gas varies according to the temperature of the incoming cooling water; the temperature of the exit gas should be within ∼5 °C (10 °F) of the cooling water. More moisture can be removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... in that both are capable of: Flowing Exerting pressure upon surfaces they contact Exhibiting flow velocity that can be measured through an orifice Although there is no clear distinction between gases and vapors, the term vapor usually is applied to a gas that is near its liquefying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... corrosion rate is high but rapidly falls off over a period of days as an iron oxide film is formed that acts as a barrier to oxygen diffusion ( Ref 2 ). Additionally, water-soluble salts are hygroscopic and, at a critical humidity, will liquefy. The critical relative humidity of a salt is the relative...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... column produces a narrowly divergent beam of electrons along the centerline of the column and steers the beam onto the sample surface. The major components of the electron-optics column are the electron gun, condenser lens, objective lens, and scanning coils. Electron Gun The electron gun contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... alloy plate in the large tanks used for transportation of liquefied gases. The corrosion-resistant aluminum alloys in current use permit designs that save about 50% of the weight of similar designs in steel. Substantial savings of weight in deckhouses and topside equipment permit lighter supporting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... that arises directly from the area of melting metal. Unlike gases, fumes are metallic vapors that have condensed to a solid. They are often associated with a chemical reaction such as oxidation.) Personnel must also be trained to recognize safety hazards in all situations and environments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... + 2 H 2 O + Δ H ( enthalpy ) During primary combustion of the C 2 H 2 contained in a pressurized cylinder (as a liquefied compressed gas) by oxygen contained in a pressurized cylinder (as a compressed gas), ΔH = 227 kJ/mol of heat is released during the dissociation of the C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of liquefied natural gas Superconducting systems in power transmissions Integrated-circuit lead frames Components for radios and other electronic devices Structural components in optical and laser measuring systems Low-expansion alloys are also used with high-expansion alloys (65%Fe-27%Ni-5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of pyrolysis, these resins form amorphous (glassy) carbon. The carbon yield at 800 °C (1470 °F) is about 50 to 60 wt%. The coal tar and petroleum pitches are mixtures of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. From their softening point up to about 400 °C (750 °F), the liquefied pitches undergo various changes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., making these materials useful for glass-to-metal sealing and containment equipment for liquefied natural gas, for example. The controlled thermal expansion alloys, typified by alloy 903 (Ni-42Fe-15Cu+Nb,Al,Ti), are also γ′-precipitation hardenable, offering high strength and low, relatively constant...