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Condenser tubes

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. 2 3 4 ×. (b) Higher magnification view of a pit More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Copper alloy C26000 steam-turbine condenser tube that failed by dezincification. (a) Section through condenser tube showing dezincification of inner surface. 3 1 2 ×. (b) Etched specimen from the tube showing corroded porous region at the top and unaffected region below. 100× More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 25 Pitted 316 stainless steel condenser tube. (a) Inner surface of main condenser tube showing extensive localized pitting corrosion attack. Original magnification: 1×. (b) Longitudinal section passing through a pitted area showing extensive pitting that progressed beneath the inner More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. Original magnification: 2.75×. (b) Higher-magnification More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 6 Copper alloy C26000 steam-turbine condenser tube that failed by dezincification. (a) Section through condenser tube showing dezincification of inner surface. Original magnification: 3.5×. (b) Etched specimen from the tube showing corroded porous region at the top and unaffected region More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... problems associated with common feedwater heater tube materials. air-cooled condensers condensate-feedwater system corrosion deaerators erosion-corroison channel feedwater heaters header feedwater heaters galvanic corrosion pitting corrosion power plants water-cooled condensers tube...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Erosion-corrosion occurring immediately downstream of a nylon insert in an aluminum brass condenser tube cooled by seawater More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contaminated with calcium chloride from road-deicing and dust-control operations. The corrodent washed over stainless steel condenser tubes, causing ferric chloride pitting, which perforated the tubes before they were removed from the boxes. Wrapping with waterproof paper probably would have prevented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are not significant factors; loading, because it is opposed by the internal pressure, is so low that tubes with a high allowable stress are not required. Similar considerations are required for other types of heat- or condenser-exchanger designs, such as the plate and double-pipe heat exchangers. These types are also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and various formed or machined fittings. In marine service, copper tube and pipe are used to carry potable water, seawater, and other fluids, but their chief application is in tube bundles for condensers, economizers, and auxiliary heat exchangers. Copper tube and pipe are used in food and beverage industries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., naval brass, or aluminum brass effectively produces high resistance to dezincification. Inhibited alloys have been extensively used for such components as condenser tubes, which must accumulate years of continuous service between shutdowns for repair or replacement. Phosphor Bronzes Addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for material in a condensing heat-recovery system. These include: The regular replacement of carbon steel tubes The use of more highly alloyed material The application of polymers as listed in Table 1 The coating of carbon steel tubes with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polymers used...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 36 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing and only partly penetrated the tubing More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 30 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing and only partly penetrated the tubing More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of undercut pits. When this form of corrosion occurs in a condenser tube, it is usually confined to a region near the inlet end of the tube where fluid flow is rapid and turbulent. If some of the tubes in a bundle become plugged, the velocity is increased in the remaining tubes; therefore, the unit should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., circumferential fracture at left end of the longitudinal main rupture. There are three causes of these rapid failures. The first is tube blockage. In a superheater or a reheater, condensate collects at low points in the steam circuit. A rapid start-up will lead to high metal temperature because no steam...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. 4×. (c) Unetched section through More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. Original magnification: 4×. (c More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Chemical processing Storage tanks, agitators, pumps, columns, frames, screens, mixers, valves, pressurized reactors, filters, piping and tubing, heat exchangers, electrodes and anode baskets for metal and chlorine-alkali electrolysis Energy industry  Power generating plants Condensers, cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article provides information on the application of nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies to tube and pipe products. These include modeling and simulation methods, eddy-current methods, magnetic methods, acoustic methods, and physical methods. A summary of nondestructive...