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Closed-die forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... 7 Metal flow (a) to (c) and load-stroke curve (d) in closed-die forging. (a) Upsetting. (b) Filling. (c) End Fig. 9 Variations in flash land-width-to-thickness ratio (top) and in flash thickness (bottom) with forging weight for carbon and alloy steel forgings in shape group 224 (see Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-type, conventional, and precision forgings Abstract Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the die to avoid counterlocked dies and to eliminate draft Fig. 4 Flow lines in a closed-die forging of AISI 4340 alloy steel. ∼0.75× Fig. 2 Cost of steel as a percentage of total cost of forgings Fig. 11 Extent of die wear in a die block hardened to 42 HRC. The block...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... 29 Relationship between crack width and stroke in truncated-cone indentation test for workability of various steels at cold forging temperatures. Source: Ref 58 Fig. 31 Typical deformation sequence in closed-die forging of a rib-web part, showing how laps can be generated if preform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging that is net forged Fig. 11 Average minimum sizes of radii for (a) corners and (b) fillets with confined webs, as suggested by forging users and forging producers. Data are derived from Table 3 Abstract Abstract Corners and fillets are curved connecting surfaces on closed-die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in the other die half in a direction parallel to the parting line. (b) Tolerances for forgings weighing less than 2 lb are customarily negotiated with the purchaser Fig. 3 Tolerances for (a) coining flat steel surfaces, and (b), perspective and side views of a close-tolerance forging with coined...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... with hand-stoned and polished dies Abstract Abstract Coining is a closed-die forging operation in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the workpiece. This article focuses on the coining equipment (hammers and presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 7 Axle shafts made by precision forging and welding Fig. 8 Precision forged bevel gear forged at Dana Corporation Abstract Abstract Precision forging is defined as a closed-die forging process in which the accuracy of the shape, dimensional tolerances, and surface finish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. References References 1. Sabroff A.M. , Boulger F.W. , and Henning H.J. , Forging Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.../equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 95–205 200–400 Mandrel forging 95–205 200–400 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–150 200–300 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–260 300–500 Screw presses 150–260 300–500 Orbital (rotary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloys Forging process/equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 150–260 300–500 95–260 200–500 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–260 200–500 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–315 300–600 Screw presses 150–315 300–600...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 1 Preforming by roll forging (steps shown in dark shade) of a control arm for subsequent (steps shown in light shade) closed-die forging and trimming operations Fig. 2 Modern roll forging machine with outboard housing Fig. 3 Overhang-type roll forging machine...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-restricted machines. Some of these machines can be used for many forging processes, such as open-die forging and impression-die (or closed-die) forging. Others are restricted to specific processes. Hammers Forging processes using hammers are the most versatile and the least expensive of all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Texture and Twinning Practical Workability Machines Dies Open-Die Forging Closed-Die Forging Heating for Forging Grain Size Control Die Heating Lubrication Forging pressures for the upsetting of magnesium alloy billets between flat dies are shown in Fig. 4 At normal press...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processing cycles are often optimized for specific applications and component geometries and the equally important factor of process economics. Secondary forging operations fit within two major categories: open-die forging or closed-die forging. Open-die forging of nickel-base alloys refers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in manufacturing processes. The article concludes with information on the main categories of tool and die materials used for a variety of manufacturing application. friction dry forming metal forming cold working hot working surface flattening lubricant film thickness isothermal forging heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... at forging temperatures. 1, military brass; 2, zincified brass (C99400, C99500); 3, forging brass (C37700). Source: Ref 1 , p 225 Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company Abstract Abstract This article focuses on forging processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in drawing above) Fig. 14 Conventional aluminum alloy forgings for gimbal ring: ring-rolled (a) and finished by closed-die forging (b). See Example 8 . Dimensions in figure given in inches Item Conventional closed-die forging (revised) Material and temper Aluminum alloy 2014-T6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Forging Industry Association , 1997 Open-Die Forging Closed-Die Forging Upset Forging Roll Forging Ring Rolling Forging Methods Ingot Breakdown Forgeability Austenitic Stainless Steels Martensitic Stainless Steels Ferritic Stainless Steels Precipitation-Hardening...