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Caustic cracking

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 25 Caustic stress-corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone of a type 316L stainless steel NaOH reactor vessel. Cracks are branching and intergranular. More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 6 Photographs of boiler plates exhibiting caustic stress-corrosion cracking (arrows). Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 32 Micrographs of caustic stress-corrosion cracking that developed in austenitic stainless steel piping. The micrographs in (b) correspond to the box in (a). Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 50 Caustic stress-corrosion cracking in carbon steel. Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 93 (a) Caustic gouging on transfer piping. (b) More highly stressed location, where caustic cracking was found on caustic transfer piping More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-accelerated corrosion, oxygen pitting, chelant corrosion, caustic corrosion, acid corrosion, organic corrosion, phosphate corrosion, hydrogen damage, and corrosion-assisted cracking. boilers corrosion caustic corrosion organic corrosion corrosion prevention corrosion control hydrogen damage flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., but ductile iron can be susceptible to cracking in highly alkaline solutions while gray cast iron is not ( Ref 9 ). Ductile cast iron is, however, sometimes used for specific items, such as valves or pumps. The addition of nickel greatly reduces the corrosion rate of cast iron in boiling 50 to 65% caustic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the annealed condition with a weld of type 308 stainless steel. Figure 1(b) shows intergranular caustic SCC of 316L stainless steel. Fig. 1 Branching cracks typical of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). (a) Chloride SCC of type 304 stainless steel base metal and type 308 weld metal in an aqueous...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Plot demonstrating the susceptibility of some austenitic stainless steels to caustic stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) with respect to temperature and caustic concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking has not been observed in these austenitic stainless steels exposed to conditions More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the earliest forms of SCC (season cracking and caustic embrittlement) predate the term itself. It was during investigations into early SCC failures that the three required elements of SCC were discovered: a susceptible metal/alloy, a specific environment, and the presence of tensile stress. Season Cracking...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Branching cracks typical of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). (a) Chloride SCC of type 304 stainless steel base metal and type 308 weld metal in an aqueous chloride environment at 95 °C (200 °F). Cracks are branching and transgranular. (b) Caustic SCC in the HAZ of a type 316L stainless More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Photographs of a cracked rivet (top) and dislodged rivet heads (bottom) from a boiler that experienced caustic stress-corrosion cracking. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 85 Large enclosed cylindrical pressure vessel that failed by stress-corrosion cracking because of caustic embrittlement by potassium hydroxide. (a) View of vessel before failure and details of nozzle and tray support (dimensions given in inches). (b) Corrosion pits at edge of fracture More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Large enclosed cylindrical pressure vessel that failed by SCC because of caustic embrittlement by potassium hydroxide. (a) View of vessel before failure and details of nozzle and tray support. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Micrograph showing corrosion pits at edge of fracture surface More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 13 Caustic SCC in the HAZ of a type 316L stainless steel NaOH reactor vessel. Cracks are branching and intergranular. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... ). The presence of small amounts of oxygen or sulfur dioxide was shown to inhibit cracking in gaseous hydrogen ( Ref 69 , 70 ). Caustic Solutions Stress-corrosion cracking of carbon steel in sodium hydroxide or caustic solution has been well documented and has been most commonly associated with steam...
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 4 Temperature and concentration limits for stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of carbon steels in caustic soda. Source: Ref 6 , 11 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 4 Map of the United States with red circles identifying the locations of wells whose water was linked to caustic stress-corrosion cracking in boilers in the early 20th century. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... a shutdown, corrosion can be caused by pockets of water left in the process units and associated piping. Most petroleum refining and petrochemical plant operations involve flammable hydrocarbon streams, highly toxic or explosive gases, and strong acids or caustics that are often at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... method °C °F 1010 … … … … … … 790–900 1450–1650 Oil 120–205 250–400 1015 … … … … … … 790–900 1450–1650 Oil 120–205 250–400 1016 900–925 1650–1700 Water or Caustic … … … 790–900 1450–1650 Oil 120–205 250–400 1018 900–925 1650–1700 Water or Caustic 790...