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Brackish water

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-through” from the lake or river and back again. Some power plants have a service water system consisting of a closed loop of treated water that is cooled by a raw water heat exchanger ( Fig. 3 ). This is typical of plants that utilize seawater or brackish water for cooling. Fig. 3 A closed loop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... sources, which range from low-conductivity, low-hardness freshwater to high-hardness freshwater to sea and brackish water and cooling tower water. All of these cooling waters can have various tendencies to corrode condenser materials and to introduce organic fouling and mineral scaling. The cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... are other important constituents of seawater. Brackish waters, found at the margins of seawater and freshwater, have dissolved solids concentrations between 1000 and 35,000 mg/L (ppm). Seawater corrosion exposures include full-strength open ocean water, coastal seawater, brackish and estuarine waters...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Barbara Channel indicated that the loss due to corrosion is about 1 mm (40 mils) over a 20 year interval, or a rate of about 50 μm/year (2 mils/year), which can be reduced to about 25 μm/year (1 mil/year) thereafter. Corrosion in brackish waters, such as is found in bays and estuaries, parallels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at temperatures above 60 °C (140 °F). Zinc Anodes Zinc anodes are used on ship hulls because, unlike aluminum, zinc will continue to perform when ships enter the brackish water or freshwater of harbors. Tankers with combination ballast/product tanks use zinc anodes because of their lower tendency to cause...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., in service, and during periods in which the equipment is not operating. The environment to which tubes will be exposed is often difficult to predict. Many heat exchangers operate with river water, seawater, brackish water, or recirculated cooling-tower water in the tubes. The compositions of these waters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... with aeration, that is, from less than 0.05 mm/yr (<2 mils/yr) in deaerated water to more than 1.25 mm/yr (>50 mils/ yr) in aerated water. In tap, brackish, or seawater, pitting tends to occur. In tap water and seawater, yellow brass tends to dezincify (especially when conditions are near stagnation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is not operating. The condition of the fluid environment to which heat-transfer surfaces will be exposed is often difficult to predict. Many heat exchangers operate with river water, seawater, brackish water, or recirculated cooling-tower water in the tubes/ducts. The compositions of these waters used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in which the corrosion rate is very low, such as fresh, brackish, and salt water; many types of soil; neutral, alkaline, and acid salt solutions, organic acids; and sugar juices. Other substances that cause uniform thinning at a faster rate include oxidizing acids, sulfur-bearing compounds, NH 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... exhibit a directional pattern related to the path taken by the corrodent as it moves over the surface of the metal. Figure 10 shows the interior of a 50 mm (2 in.) copper river waterline that has suffered pitting and general erosion due to excessive velocity of the water. The brackish river water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... rate of iron in aerated room-temperature solutions. Data are complied from several investigations. Source: Ref 1 The general marine environment includes a great diversity of subenvironments, such as full-strength open ocean water, coastal seawater, brackish and estuarine waters, bottom...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the opposite end of the pH scale. It should not be surprising that microorganisms have been implicated in corrosion and cracking problems in a correspondingly wide range of industrial systems. Whatever the environmental conditions, microorganisms need water, a source of energy to drive their metabolism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... after 63 years of infrequent use in a brackish water environment (industrial canal). Severe metal degradation promoted by bacterial action caused the collar to fracture when the crank was called on to help manually elevate dam logs. The culprits were aerobic and anaerobic thiobacillus bacteria, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... solutions, brackish water, and mildly acidic solutions are environments that often lead to the dezincification of unmodified brasses. Susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is significantly affected by zinc content; alloys that contain more zinc are more susceptible. Resistance to SCC increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... potentials in soils. Standard calomel electrodes contain mercury and are often used in the laboratory, but seldom in the field. Chloride contamination of a CSE will result in an error in the measurement. Therefore, silver/silver chloride electrodes (Ag/AgCl) are used in seawater and brackish water. Zinc...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... strength is acceptable. Corrosion in Waters Waters can vary from extremely pure to chemically treated water to highly concentrated chloride solutions, such as brackish water or seawater, further concentrated by recycling. This chloride content poses the danger of pitting or crevice attack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel piping used to transport a slurry of magnesium hydroxide and alumina at pH 10.5 ( Ref 17 ). Whatever the environmental conditions, microorganisms need water, a source of energy to drive their metabolism, and nutrients to provide essential building materials (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... atmosphere Buildings or areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution Categories for water and soil Im 1 Fresh water River installations, hydroelectric plants Im 2 Sea or brackish water Harbor areas with structures such as sluice gates, locks, jetties; offshore structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that has suffered pitting and general erosion due to excessive velocity of the water. The brackish river water contained some suspended solids that caused the polishing of the copper pipe surface. The horseshoe-shaped pits (facing upstream) are typical of the damage caused by localized turbulence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... areas with high humidity and aggressive atmosphere Buildings or areas with almost permanent condensation and with high pollution Categories for water and soil Im 1 Freshwater River installations, hydro-electric plants Im 2 Sea or brackish water Harbor areas with structures such as sluice...