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Boltzmann superposition principle

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... employed for analytical prediction of deformation characteristics of polymers. Boltzmann superposition principle creep experiments deformation characteristics dynamic mechanical experiments plastics polymers prediction of deformation time-temperature superposition viscoelastic characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... often cannot be considered to behave, even at room temperature, as purely elastic materials. Several superposition principles can be used to extrapolate short-term test data to a longer period of material property behavior. These include the Boltzmann superposition principle, the time-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... activated process strongly dependent on temperature, diffusivity ( D ) can, in principle, be expressed as a function of absolute temperature, T , according to the Arrhenius expression: (Eq 6) D ( T ) = D 0 e − ( E a / kT ) In this expression, k is the Boltzmann’s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperatures. Source: Ref 14 There are precautions for using time-temperature superposition for the prediction of long-term behavior. The time-temperature superposition is valid only if linear viscoelastic equations are applicable, which is referred to as the Boltzmann linearity. The application limits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...) n 1 n 2 = e − h ν / k T where h is Planck's constant, ν is frequency, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is temperature. Therefore, use of a high applied frequency improves the sensitivity of this technique. In practice, the frequencies in the well-developed radar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006954
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... convenient to use c 1 L = 1.191,042,972 × 10 8 W · μm 4 · m −2 · sr −1 and c 2 = 1.438,776,877 × 10 4 μm · K ( Ref 34 ). These constants are based on c 1 L = 2 hc 2 and c 2 = hc / k B , where h is the Planck’s constant, c is the speed of light, and k B is the Boltzmann constant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... temperature changes). As a consequence, the activation enthalpy, Q = kTm / m *, is constant as well during a stress-strain test, where k is the Boltzmann factor. The usual interpretation of these interdependencies is that the thermal and the athermal parts of the flow stress stay in a fixed relation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... where ∈ is emissivity, σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, θ w is the surface temperature, θ ∞ , is the environmental temperature, and B is the characteristic surface dimension. Natural convection is dominant at a temperature below 550 °C (1020 °F), whereas radiation becomes more important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... energy ( E , in meV) and a temperature ( T , in Kelvin), associated with the corresponding Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (because moderated neutron beams can be approximated as ideal gases) . Such characteristics can be inferred from knowledge of the neutron velocity (υ, in m/s) obtained from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for an oxidized steel surface), σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.6704 × 10 −14 J/s · mm 2 · K 4 , where K is the absolute temperature in °C), θ w is the surface temperature (°C), and θ ∞ is the environmental temperature (°C). The natural convection heat-loss coefficient in air is in the range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in nonmagnetic and magnetic metals using inductive coupling and, specifically, without the use of a mechanical coupling medium between the transducer and the adjacent metal. The most common coupling mechanisms are the Lorentz force on induced currents (various first-principle methods of deriving Lorentz force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... , individual cavity-growth rate parameter in complex stress state η i , cavity-growth rate along principal direction “ i ” k , Boltzmann constant K , strength coefficient k D, constant dependent on the geometry of the deformation L i , cavity length along principal direction “ i ” λ, cavity spacing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.9781627084390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6