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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article briefly describes water and steam chemistry, which influence the effect of corrosion in boilers. The appropriate control measures to prevent corrosion in boilers are also presented. The article provides a discussion on the common causes of fluid-side corrosion such as flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The presence of certain impurities in coal and oil is responsible for the majority of fireside corrosion experienced in utility boilers. In coal, the primary impurities are sulfur, alkali metals, and chlorine. The most detrimental impurities in fuel oil are vanadium, sodium, sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article describes the corrosion modes in a waste-to-energy boiler. It discusses the corrosion protection and alloy performance with an emphasis on two main areas of the boiler: furnace water walls and super heaters. waste-to-energy boiler corrosion protection high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 5 The evolution of ferritic steels for boilers. Generations are categorized by the 10 5 h creep-rupture strength at 600 °C. Source: Ref 7 , 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 The evolution of austenitic steels for boilers. {#} indicates 10 5 h creep-rupture strength at 600 °C, 2 Mpa. Source: Ref 7 , 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 Maximum coal ash corrosion rates of alloys in ultrasupercritical boilers as a function of chromium concentration. Squares and diamonds are data from different test loops. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Maximum coal ash corrosion rates of alloys in ultrasupercritical boilers as a function of Cr+Ni concentration. Squares and diamonds are data from different test loops. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 4 Erosion- and corrosion-attacked tubes of a biomass-fired boiler pipe panel. Sample courtesy of Häuser & Co. GmbH, Duisburg, Germany. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 15 Creep-rupture strengths of various boiler tube steels at 600 °C (1110 °F). Source: Ref 21 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 16 100,000-h creep-rupture strength of various steels used in boiler tubes. TB12 steel has as much as five times the 100,000-h creep-rupture strength of conventional ferritic steels at 600 °C (1110 °F). This allows an increase in boiler tube operating temperature of 120 to 130 °C (215 More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 14 Most of the damage in a boiler tube is related to loss of wall thickness due to corrosion. Creep damage occurs late in life due to stress increase. More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 44 Corrosion-fatigue cracks in carbon-steel boiler tube originated at corrosion pits. Corrosion products are present along the entire length of the cracks. 250× More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 26 Creep life assessment based on cavity classification in boiler steels. Source: Ref 87 More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 3 Steam drum for an SA 515 steel electric utility boiler More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 578 Creep failure of steam boiler superheater tube. Material: normalized and tempered ASME SA213, grade T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo steel). Cracking occurred at a hot spot due to long-time exposure to tensile stresses induced by the internal pressure and service temperatures up to 705 °C (1300 °F More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 37 Short-term and rapid overheating of a steel boiler tube (reheater, superheater, or similar—source unknown) resulted in a longitudinal “fish-mouth” rupture. The tube had experienced elevated temperatures (455 to >730 °C, or 850 to >1350 °F) where the metal strength is markedly More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 5 Eroded tube inserts from the inlet end of a fire-tube boiler. The inserts were eroded by particle-laden flue gas, which was forced to turn as it entered the boiler. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 9 Estimated design allowable stresses (Section VIII of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) as a function of temperature for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, standard 9Cr-1Mo, 2 1 4 Cr-1Mo steel, and 304 stainless steel. Source: Ref 7 More