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Boiler tubes

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 37 Short-term and rapid overheating of a steel boiler tube (reheater, superheater, or similar—source unknown) resulted in a longitudinal “fish-mouth” rupture. The tube had experienced elevated temperatures (455 to >730 °C, or 850 to >1350 °F) where the metal strength is markedly More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 14 Most of the damage in a boiler tube is related to loss of wall thickness due to corrosion. Creep damage occurs late in life due to stress increase. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 2 Classification of boiler-tube damage mechanisms More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Microstructure of a carbon steel boiler tube subjected to prolonged overheating below Ac 1 showing (a) decomposition of pearlite into ferrite and spheroidal carbides (original magnification: 400×) and (b) spheroidization of carbide and grain-boundary voids characteristic of tertiary creep More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Photograph of thin-lip rupture in a boiler tube caused by rapid overheating More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 12 Typical microstructures of carbon steel boiler tube that ruptured as a result of rapid overheating. (a) Elongated grains near rupture resulting from rapid overheating below the recrystallization temperature. (b) Mixed structure near rupture resulting from rapid overheating between Ac 1 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 69 Photograph of failed boiler tube showing polishing of the outer surface More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 73 (a) Close-up view of a boiler-tube fracture surface indicating initiation of fatigue cracks from multiple locations on the right-side portion of the tube. Left side is the fast-fracture zone, indicative of failure under overload condition. (b) Ratchet marks indicative of crack initiation More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Metallographic mount of failed steel boiler tube sample exhibiting corrosion fatigue. Source: Ref 53 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... procedure and techniques followed in failure investigation of boilers and related equipment are discussed. The article is framed with an objective to provide systematic information on various damage mechanisms leading to the failure of boiler tubes, headers, and drums, supplemented by representative case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses some elevated-temperature properties of carbon steels and low-alloy steels with ferrite-pearlite and ferrite-bainite microstructures for use in boiler tubes, pressure vessels, and steam turbines. The selection of steels to be used at elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sleeves, automotive bolts, hydraulic jack shafts, crank handle collars, boiler tubes, drive shafts, bicycle pedal axles, lift-truck hydraulic-piston rods, and steel springs. boilers delayed fracture fatigue crack propagation fatigue fracture fractograph impact fracture intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... boiler tube failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment on aero gas turbine engines and provides an overview of aging, diffusion, and interdiffusion phenomena. It also discusses the processes involved in high...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 23 Corrosion rate in a combustion environment versus time as monitored using electrochemical methods is plotted with a key process variable. Fireside corrosion of boiler tubes in coal-fired utilities and waste incineration plants is an expensive and difficult problem to deal with. Special More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... sulfur are predominately SO 2 or H 2 S in the gas phase, depending on the stoichiometry of the air/fuel mixture. Vapor species such as alkali sulfates, alkali vanadates, and vanadium sulfates are also formed and subsequently condense on the boiler tubes where the temperatures are lower. The lower metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-temperature corrosion super heaters furnace water walls corrosion modes alloy performance THE COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE in a waste-to-energy (WTE) boiler for power generation produces a very corrosive environment for the boiler tube materials. Municipal solid waste typically contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... boiler tube, concentration of chemicals at the tube surface is limited by free exchange of fluid between the surface and boiler water flowing through the tube. Even where there are thin deposits, boiling generally produces sufficient flow within the deposits to limit the degree of concentration. However...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analyst to determine the cause and suggest corrective action. The causes of failures include tube rupture, corrosion or scaling, fatigue, erosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The article also describes the procedures for conducting a failure analysis. boilers corrosion embrittlement erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a material is pitted. In certain systems, pitting is also a possible damage mechanism. In boiler tubing, for example, a pitting damage mechanism describes a specific localized corrosion mechanism where pits form through dissolution of metal either from low pH or high oxygen conditions. The metal under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a component that is no longer able to perform its intended function. This could apply at any time during the product life cycle. Damage does not necessarily mean failure. For example, power boiler superheater tubes undergo damage in the form of high-temperature degradation as the microstructure decomposes...