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Ball joints

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... structure, which more easily leads to stress concentration in the solder joint ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Copper-tin (Cu 6 Sn 5 ) and silver-tin (Ag 3 Sn) intermetallic compound morphology in a solder ball In addition to the copper-tin and silver-tin IMCs, tin also reacts with several plating metals...
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 1 (a) Example of a permanent joint created by snap-fit features in mating extruded profiles. (b) Hinge joints featuring ball-and-socket shapes More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Formation of a cold-soldered joint caused by warpage. PCB, printed circuit board; BGA, ball grid array More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of solder balls on a leadless ceramic chip carrier solder joint. Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 27 Black light used to reveal magnetic-particle indication of a crack in the centering stud of a ball-yoke-type universal-joint section of a drive-shaft assembly. Courtesy of Magnaflux Corporation More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 17 Broaching application. (a) Tool made of P/M high-speed tool steel that was used to produce ball tracks on joint hub. (b) ASP 30 tools produced 20,000 parts compared to 5600 parts by tools made from conventional high-speed tool steel. Courtesy of Speedsteel Inc. More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 14 Broaching application. (a) Tool made from P/M high-speed tool steel that was used to produce ball tracks on joint hub. (b) ASP 30 tools produced 20,000 parts compared to 5600 parts by tools made from conventional high-speed tool steel. Courtesy of Speedsteel Inc. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., but it is usually better to specify tubing with a controlled weld flash. Ball mandrels are often made with several balls, as shown in Fig. 6 . The balls or segments are always smaller than the body, and they can be jointed by links and pins, ball joints, or steel cable. A linked or jointed mandrel is usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... the amount of input data needed, or speed the solution of the simulation. Hindsight is a great teacher in such situations, and each such experience results in a better analyst for the next case! Example 1: Mechanism Dynamics and Simulation in the Design of Bowling Balls Rather than delve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...: wrist joint between radius and carpel bones in the hand) Saddle joints (thumb) Ball and socket (hip and shoulder) Most of the studies have been made on active tribological pairs such as the knee or hip joints, where the conditions are severe and the fluids that lubricate undergo changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... identical test vehicles and assembly processes. The CBGA solder joints were composed of a high-lead ball (90Pb-10Sn) attached by eutectic tin-lead solder to the substrate and the card pads. In all the MDS and ATC test cases, the fatal cracks propagated near the copper-tin intermetallic layer or along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... shape but is usually a flat-ended pin or a ball (the ASTM International standards specify a 6 mm, or 0.2 in., diameter ball), depending on the contact configuration desired. The vertically mounted pin has the advantage of a constant contact area throughout the test but has the disadvantage of tending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of solder that fail to coagulate with the larger solder mass in the joint ( Fig. 2 ). Solder balls that are not removed by the cleaning process can cause short circuits during device electrical operation. Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of solder balls on a leadless ceramic chip carrier solder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... sheet-to-sheet joints, to cross-wire welds, to annular attachments, to nut welds, to weld screws, to ball-sheet joints, and so on. Fig. 2 Typical stacked configuration for embossed-projection welding of sheet Fig. 3 Typical configuration for solid-projection welding Embossed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Center , Columbus, Ohio , March 1975 34. Ball D.L. , “The Development of Mode I, Linear-Elastic Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Cracks in Mechanically Fastened Joints,” Eng. Frac. Mech. , Vol 27 ( No. 7 ), 1987 , p 653 – 681 10.1016/0013-7944(87)90157-3 35. Zhao...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... ). Fig. 1 Die-set nomenclature Generally, the guide bushings are assembled to the punch holder and the guide posts to the die holder. This arrangement is normally reversed when ball-bearing bushing assemblies are used. The Shank: Functions and Variations The shank is used to center...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... surface Directly spraying the flux onto the board surface After flux is applied, the substrate is passed through a preheating stage. Warming the board promotes activation of the flux, accelerates the evaporation of volatiles from the flux (which can cause voids and solder balls by spattering upon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... a liquid metal droplet is placed on a nonmetallic surface, such as copper oxide. Because there are no metallic bonds at the oxide surface, the liquid metal will have little tendency to interact with that surface. The metal droplet will behave as though it is repelled, and will try to ball up to minimize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...(a) shows an example of a snap-fit joint using two extruded aluminum profiles. Snap fits usually are designed to be permanent connections, but the detail geometry can be designed for disassembly and reuse. Figure 1(b) illustrates two types of hinge joints involving ball-and-socket shapes. The ball shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., but because these came loose within a year, no doubt due to the excessive friction associated with a stainless steel ball seated within a close-fitting acetabular cup, the material of construction was changed to Vitallium, a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. McKee then adopted a modified form of the Thompson...