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Axles

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the common types of automotive and truck axle shafts. It provides information on steels used for induction-hardened shafts, and on the manufacturing and induction hardening methods of axle shafts. The article discusses the effects of case depth, shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., drawing, piercing, and sometimes upsetting are often combined in a sequence of operations to produce various tubular parts. Example 2 describes a procedure for extruding a part having a long tubular section. Example 2: Producing Axle-Housing Spindles in Five Operations An axle-housing spindle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pitting and manufacturing defects has become more important. This article presents case histories that are intended as an overview of the unique types of failures encountered in the freight railroad industry. The discussion covers failures of axle journals, bearings, wheels, couplers, rails and rail welds...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 30 Fractured axle journal within bearing. The end cap was removed from the failed side. A noticeable amount of red rust was present on the interior of the end cap, as seen in Fig. 32 . The journal stub was pressed out of the bearing. Present on the end of the journal was the axle More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 Cross-sectional view of fitted backing ring on a fitted axle versus a nonfitted backing ring on a nonfitted axle More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 28 Fracture surface on axle side. Note that the backing ring remains in place on the axle due to the fitted backing ring More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 9 Images of a bearing and associated axle shaft. (a) Scored inside-diameter surface of the bearing. (b) Severely worn region on the axle. (c) Cross section of a region with stepped abrasive wear More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 43 Ultrasonic inspection of a cold-extruded steel automobile-axle shaft for chevrons and internal splits using a portable inspection unit More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 55 Sketch of single-shot induction hardening of an axle shaft. Note: The right half of this induction system is computer modeled in Fig. 51 More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 56 Results of numerical simulation of heating an axle shaft by using a single-shot inductor. Courtesy of Inductoheat, Inc. More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 21 Noticeable fold on a finished axle-beam forging More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 Axle shafts made by upsetter forging More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 7 Axle shafts made by precision forging and welding More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 11 1030 steel (hardness: 75–80 HRB) axle-housing spindle produced by extruding and piercing in five operations. Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 15 1039 steel rear-axle drive shaft produced by cold extruding an upset forging in three operations. Billet weight: 9.6 kg (21.2 lb). Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 24 Axle bearing support for which blank was prepared so that long flanges were formed at a slight angle to direction of rolling to prevent cracking. Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 19 Steps in the production of a rear-axle housing from a tubular blank. Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Initiation site of axle 1, indicated by blue arrow, bearing side of journal More