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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Macrographs of two polished sections from the failed axles. (a) Axle 1611. (b) Axle 2028. Each was positioned along the fracture at the outside-diameter surface. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Examples of the normal microstructure of the axles. Specimens were taken well away from the fracture surface. (a) Axle 2028. Etched with 2% nital. 100×. (b) Axle 2028. Etched with 4% picral. 500×. (c) Axle 1611. Same etchant and magnification as (a). (d) Axle 1611. Same etchant More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Broken axles from two different Seaboard Coast Line locomotives that failed due to overheated friction-bearing failures. The pictures show both axles that were used to learn about the failure mode. The fracture faces of axle 2028 in the photo were damaged badly while those of 1611 were not. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article describes the common types of automotive and truck axle shafts. It provides information on steels used for induction-hardened shafts, and on the manufacturing and induction hardening methods of axle shafts. The article discusses the effects of case depth, shaft length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., drawing, piercing, and sometimes upsetting are often combined in a sequence of operations to produce various tubular parts. Example 2 describes a procedure for extruding a part having a long tubular section. Example 2: Producing Axle-Housing Spindles in Five Operations An axle-housing spindle...
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 197 Surface of a torsional-fatigue fracture in an induction-hardened AISI 1041 steel experimental tractor axle same as in Fig. 196 . Hardness in the hardened zone was 50 HRC at 11 to 12 mm ( 7 16 to 15 32 in.) beneath the axle surface at the crack origin. This axle More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 17 (a) Microstructure of failed axle shaft, location A, transverse direction. (b) Microstructure of failed axle shaft, location B, transverse direction. (c) Microstructure of failed axle shaft at fracture location, longitudinal direction. (d) Microstructure of failed axle shaft at spline More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and manufacturing defects has become more important. This article presents case histories that are intended as an overview of the unique types of failures encountered in the freight railroad industry. The discussion covers failures of axle journals, bearings, wheels, couplers, rails and rail welds, and track...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 30 Fractured axle journal within bearing. The end cap was removed from the failed side. A noticeable amount of red rust was present on the interior of the end cap, as seen in Fig. 32 . The journal stub was pressed out of the bearing. Present on the end of the journal was the axle More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, brittle fracture, and in-service rotary bending fatigue fracture of fractured roof-truss angles, pressure-vessel shells, automotive axle shafts, broken keyed spindles, crane gears, blooming-mill spindles, automotive bolts, and crane wheels of these steels. axle shafts brittle fracture...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 Cross-sectional view of fitted backing ring on a fitted axle versus a nonfitted backing ring on a nonfitted axle More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 28 Fracture surface on axle side. Note that the backing ring remains in place on the axle due to the fitted backing ring More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 9 Images of a bearing and associated axle shaft. (a) Scored inside-diameter surface of the bearing. (b) Severely worn region on the axle. (c) Cross section of a region with stepped abrasive wear More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 10 Ductile fracture of “super-duty” 12 in. long axle shaft made of AISI Type S7 tool steel that failed in torsion (note torsion marks on axle shaft) as a result of improper hardening More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 198 Surface of a fatigue fracture in a truck axle of AISI 1041 steel induction hardened to 55 HRC. The axle broke after 490 h of service. Crack origin was subsurface, near a keyway. Note that fatigue crack progressed in steps. Actual size. More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 21 Entire length of an automotive axle shaft hardened at one time in a single-shot induction-hardening machine to reduce cycle time. Courtesy of Inductoheat, Inc. More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 32 Torsional test data for an induction-hardened semifloat axle shaft made from SAE 1038 steel furnace tempered 1h. Source: Ref 43 More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 33 Torsion fatigue life versus tempering temperature for the SAE 1038 axle shafts furnace tempered 1h. Source: Ref 43 More