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Ammonium compounds

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 64 Leaking copper pipes in a recently refurbished bathroom were attributed to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) caused by tensile stresses arising from improper handling and installation (wrench marks, gouges) and ammonium salts (from leveling compounds in the cement that encased the copper More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... The unknown is treated with a few drops of a 1 to 5% solution of bromine (Br 2 ) in dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ). The decolorization of the orange-brown bromine indicates unsaturation in the unknown (C=C or C≡C). Ceric Ammonium Nitrate Test Add ten drops of the compound to be tested to 1 to 2 mL of 5...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of antimicrobial compounds are available: organometallics such as 10,10′-oxybisphenoxarsine (OBPA); organic sulfur compounds; and quaternary ammonium compounds ( Ref 4 ). OBPA is both the most commonly used preservative and the most effective. About 0.04% OBPA is required in the final product, compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... powder phase, to prevent sintering of the mix during high-temperature processing. Usually aluminum oxide is used Activator—a volatile halide, usually an ammonium or sodium halide, to act as a chemical transfer medium for the aluminum The precleaned steel parts to be pack aluminized are placed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... by adding a sulfide reagent to form ammonium thiomolybdate, which is precipitated by adding a copper compound ( Ref 6 ). Separation of sodium is the major step of producing pure APT. In both cases (LIX and SIX), the tungstate anion is extracted from the aqueous solution and the sodium is allowed to exit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Precious metal or alloy Etchant composition and use (a) Method 100 Au Au alloys (e.g., 60Au-40Pd, 75Au-12Ag-13Cu) Part A: 5% KCN (potassium cyanide) Part B: 5% (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 (ammonium persulfate) Mix fresh, part A:B (1:1) Immersion: 1–5 min Au alloys (>75 Au) 30 g KI (potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... mixture of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide is used to sinter coal and sulfide minerals for determination of sulfur. Silicates are decomposed for alkali metal determination by heating with a mixture of calcium carbonate and ammonium chloride. Fusions, more widely used than sinters, may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... silicon may form oxides of silicon that are removable only by hydrofluoric acid. Proprietary fluorine-bearing compounds are also available for this purpose. If a dull brown-to-gray appearance is not objectionable, the material may be pickled in the conventional sulfuric acid solution to remove the copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... caustic and acid etching was introduced. This patented process is being used as a true alternative to sodium hydroxide etching. This process is ammonium bifluoride based and produces a low gloss with minimal aluminum dissolution. Ammonium bifluoride etchants have been used in the past; however, they were...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl), silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ), and trichlorosilane (SiHCl 3 ) gases form, which are reduced by hydrogen gas to deposit elemental silicon on the surface of the part. Another process involves tumbling parts in a retort with SiC. When a temperature of 1010 °C (1850 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... glutamate Ammonium chloride, crude Concentration from gas house liquors Gas and coke Bayonet heaters, heat exchangers … Ammonium chloride, pure Concentration before crystallizing Chemical Heat exchangers High pressure Ammonium nitrate Concentration Chemical Heat exchangers … Aqua...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Rosenfeld et al. also evaluated several inorganic salts and found ammonium carbonate and copper-ammonium carbonate to be effective inhibitors ( Ref 16 ). Trabanelli listed the inhibiting efficiency values of various aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic amines deduced from accelerated corrosion tests...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cracking in a copper alloy. Intergranular cracking in an etched specimen. Approximately 60× Conditions Leading to SCC Ammonia and ammonium compounds are the corrosive substances most often associated with SCC of copper alloys. These compounds are sometimes present in the atmosphere; in other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... etching by hand wiping with a pastelike compound of about 90% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and 10% wetting agent, followed by wipe rinsing. Combinations of alkaline and acid cleaning methods are often used advantageously. Machined parts having heavy deposits of oil, grease, and light blushing rust...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Solution B Palladium (as diamino-palladous nitrite), g/L (oz/gal) 10 (1) Ammonium sulfamate, g/L (oz/gal) 110 (15) Ammonium hydroxide To pH pH 7.5-8.5 Temperature Room Current density, A/dm 2 (A/ft 2 ) 0.5-2.2 (5-20) (b) Cathode efficiency, % 70 Anodes Insoluble; platinum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...), are difficult to coat with an adherent electroplate because they form a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. There are alternative processes for plating nickel on zirconium. In the first process, the zirconium article is etched in either an ammonium bifluoride sulfuric acid, 45 g/L (6 oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... temperatures, is a common method used to decompose metal salts and to fix active metal oxide components on carriers. For example, silica can be impregnated with an ammonium metavanadate solution, and then dried and calcined to give a catalyst (vanadium pentoxide supported on silica) that is similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... turbine. Ammonium nitrate deposits have been found in the cooler parts of such waste-heat-recovery boilers, close to the stack. Under normal conditions, the flue gas will be cooled to about 80 °C (175 °F). However, below 170 °C (340 °F), ammonium nitrate is solid and is most likely to be deposited...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34 (4.5) 45 (6) Sodium hypophosphite, g/L (oz/gal) 11 (1.5) 10 (1.3) 10 (1.3) 24 (3.2) 35 (4.7) 10 (1.3) Ammonium chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 50 (6.7) 50 (6.7) … … … … Sodium citrate, g/L (oz/gal) 100 (13.3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... with this method that offer a good alternative to organic coatings. Chemical Coloring The most widely used chemical coloring method uses ferric ammonium oxalate to deposit iron salts in the coating to produce shades from yellow (brass) to yellow-brown shades. The color is light fast and practically...