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Agitators

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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 24 Example of multiple agitators used in a large open quench tank for the quenching of pipe. PD, propeller diameter. Source: Ref 20 More
Image
Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 31 Overall view of quench tank showing location of agitators, draft tubes, and part-support structure. Image at right shows location of parts on the support grid More
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 46 Oil quenching tank with four top-entry propeller-type agitators used for quenching bar stock More
Image
Published: 01 February 2024
Fig. 66 Integral quench furnace with multiple draft tube agitators More
Image
Published: 01 February 2024
Fig. 75 Mechanically rotated quench chute (no pumps or agitators) More
Image
Published: 01 February 2024
Fig. 97 (a) Overall view of quench tank showing location of agitators, draft tubes, and part-support structure. (b) Location of parts on the support grid More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article describes flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... Abstract The role of a mixer/agitator in quenching applications is to control the mixing environment in order to meet the process criteria. This article provides the basic fundamentals of the sizing of agitators, tank geometry importance, and other considerations for the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... Abstract Agitation is one of the most critical areas of quench system design. This article provides an overview of the impact of agitation on quench uniformity, followed by a general discussion of the selection and use of various types of agitators, including recirculation pumps, jet mixers...
Image
Published: 01 February 2024
Fig. 132 Commercially available quenchant agitation systems. (a) Tensi agitation system, used in ASTM D6482. (b) Drayton agitation system, used in ASTM D6549 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... techniques in quench tank agitation to establish uniformity of the quenched part. Common techniques include quenchant stirring, quenchant circulation, and submerged jet/spray mixing. The article also describes the effect of quenching agitation and reviews heat-transfer characteristics of immersion quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... Abstract Flow visualization is an important characterization process to not only understand uniformity of the interfacial cooling mechanisms, but also to characterize the overall impact of agitation on the uniformity of the overall cooling process. This article focuses on thermal flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... be controlled by proper racking. It concludes with information on agitation and the quench tank system used in the quenching of aluminum alloys. agitation system aluminum alloys cooling rate immersion water quenching polyalkylene glycol polymer quenchants quench sensitivity quench severity quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the electroless gold plating technique, describing the advantages and limitations, applications, and properties of plated deposits. It also reviews process variables of the technique, including gold concentration, reducing agent, agitation, and contaminants...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of salt quenching including considerations of time, temperature, environment, and safety, as well as critical characteristics such as the composition of the quenchant, agitation, and water additions. chemical analysis environmental safety salt quenching THE USE OF MOLTEN SALTS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Quenching severity is agitation-dependent and therefore, magnitude and turbulence of fluid flow around a part in the quench zone are critically important relative to the uniformity of heat transfer throughout the quenching process. This article provides an overview of the measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... on the importance of controlling process variables in martempering, including austenitizing temperature, temperature of the martempering bath, time in the bath, salt contamination, water additions to salt, agitation, and the rate of cooling from the martempering bath. It also describes specific situations in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... results in the powder mixture. It describes the effects of metal powder characteristics on blending and mixing: particle size, shape, density, and surface features. The article also provides information on the equipment, tumble-type blenders, and low-shear agitated-type blenders used for blending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Induction heating for hardening of steels has advantages from the standpoint of quenching because parts are individually processed in a controlled manner. This article provides information on the effect of agitation, temperature, hardening, residual stresses, and quenching media...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes the control of alloy composition and impurity levels in die casting of zinc alloys based on agitation, use of foundry scrap, and melt temperature and fluxing. It reviews the process considerations for the melt processing of the zinc alloys. The process...