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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for 2 to 3 s at 650 °C (1200 °F) in deoxidized lead baths, and then quenched into iced brine. This produced a structure of proeutectoid grain boundary and Widmanstätten ferrite in a martensitic matrix. The serial-sectioning and 3D reconstruction procedures were identical to the aforementioned except...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... dimensions to the 1 to 100 nm range, for example, fibers Two-dimensional (2D): when one coordinate is confined, for example, layered fillers Three-dimensional (3D): when there is no confinement of any dimension, for example, particulate fillers 1D Filler The 1D fillers have confinement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... versatile and rapid design-to-manufacturing approaches for printing a wide range of two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) parts, devices, and complex geometries layer by layer ( Ref 1 – 7 ). The importance of distributed AM technologies has been even more significant due to the recent supply chain issues...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... one another ( Fig. 3a ), resulting in solder joint bridges ( Fig. 3d ), which can short circuit electrical signals ( Ref 7 ). Fig. 3 Defects of solder paste deposits. (a) Appearance of paste with poor slump (optical microscopy). (b) Skips in paste deposits (optical microscopy). (c) Paste...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., linearity, and steady-state conditions. As computing power increased, so did the complexity of finite-element modeling and analysis techniques. The first analyses and elements available were limited to 2D beams and spars. The progression was then toward three-dimensional (3D) spars and beams, 2D solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.9781627083928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... different directions and reconstructs the object in 3D form based on a series of radiographs. The contrast on the 2D radiographs reflects the different intensities of transmitted x-rays, which depend on the integrated attenuation coefficient ( Ref 24 ): I = I 0 exp − μ x where I...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to erroneous results are presented. Three-dimensional (3D) stress transformations are discussed, and a procedure to obtain the principal stresses and associated directions as well as the maximum shear stresses and the planes on which they act is described. Separation of the stress tensor into hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be correlated to the fracture path. Nonetheless, a fracture profile is essentially a lower-dimensional section through a nonplanar fracture surface present in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Consequently, the geometric characteristics of the features observed in a fracture profile do not necessarily represent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... − τ x y sin2θ   Equations 11 to 13 are the 2D stress transformations. In a more complex way, a three-dimensional (3D) stress transformation equation can be defined for an arbitrary direction x ′ in 3D space. If the axis x ′ makes angles with the original x -, y -, and z -axes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Table 2 Material property scaling relationships for two architected materials Material Relative density, ρ*/ρ s Young’s modulus, E * /E s Compressive strength, σ*/σ s Fracture toughness, K Ic /(σ s l ) Triangular honeycomb—out-of-plane 2 3 t l 1 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-sintered polyamide 12 specimens with varying levels of engineered porosity. According to a fracture mechanics argument, the fracture stress varies linearly with the intrinsic material toughness K Ic and inversely with a function of the extent of the defect structure Y πa , where Y...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.9781627084390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
....3D, shown in Fig. 11 . The original version of this machine was capable of acquiring ~20 cross sections per hour at 0.1 to 10 μm per section, with an accuracy in depth of approximately 0.03 μm per section. This device offers the additional capability of etching. An example application of this method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627083874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: A Snowmobile Collision A female teenager and her boyfriend rented a snowmobile for a few hours to ride around on a lake. He was driving; she was a passenger. They collided with another snowmobile rented from the same rental agency. She was thrown on the ice, injuring her left knee. Surgery was performed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...; in the HIPed condition, the fatigue strength was 11% greater. Fatigue and fracture toughness properties of Arcam-produced Ti-6Al-4V Table 8 Fatigue and fracture toughness properties of Arcam-produced Ti-6Al-4V Process Orientation Porosity, % Plane-strain fracture toughness ( K Ic ) Standard...