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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 28 Cleavage fracture in Armco iron broken at −196 °C (−321 °F), showing river patterns, tongues, and (from bottom right to top left) a grain boundary. TEM p-c replica, 3000× More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 39 A type 321 stainless steel bellows hose jacketed with a type 304 stainless steel braid leaked in 3 months, while other hoses lasted for approximately 1 year. The flexible hose was used to transfer sulfur-containing organic fluids from a tank car. The cause of attack was extreme pitting More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 9 Layer thickness vs. plasma nitriding temperature for AISI 316, 304, and 321 stainless steels. Source: Ref 9 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H) superheater tube that failed by thick-lip stress rupture. (a) Overall view showing a typical fishmouth rupture. Approximately 1 2 ×. (b) Unetched section from location between arrows in (a) showing extensive transverse More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 Type 321 stainless steel heat-exchanger bellows that failed by fatigue originating at heavy weld reinforcement of a longitudinal seam weld. (a) A section of the bellows showing locations of the longitudinal seam weld, the circumferential welds, and the fatigue crack. Dimensions given More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 The bottom of a type 321 stainless steel aircraft freshwater storage tank that failed in service as a result of pitting. This unetched section shows subsurface enlargement and undercutting of one of the pits. Approximately 95× More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 34 Unetched section through the bottom of a type 321 stainless steel aircraft fresh-water storage tank that failed in service as a result of pitting, showing subsurface enlargement of one of the pits. 95× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 49 Zinc-induced LME in 321 austenitic stainless steel. Etched in Vilella's reagent More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 50 SEM view of grains lost from 321 stainless steel by zinc-induced LME. Etched in Vilella's reagent More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 38 Apparent ductile fracture in a 321 stainless steel superheater tube (ASME SA-213 grade TP 321H). (a) Fracture is macroscale brittle because it is on a hoop plane. (b) Intergranular cracking is revealed and at magnification of 4 1 2 ×. (c) Higher magnification (100 ×) does More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 25 Fatigue crack growth rates for annealed Types 304, 316, 321, and 348 stainless steels in air at room temperature and 593 °C (1100 °F), L-T orientation, 0.17 Hz, and an R ratio of 0. Tests were made on single-edge-notch cantilever specimens of Types 321 and 348 stainless steels from More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 26 Effect of environments on fatigue crack growth rates. (a) Types 316 and 321 stainless steels at 25 and 649 °C (77 and 1200 °F). Compact specimens were tested in fatigue loading according to a sine wave loading patterns at 5 Hz with an R ratio of 0.05 in room air, dry air, humid air More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 15 End mill test on Ti-6Al-4V. Hardness: 321 HB Cutter 25 mm (1 in.) diam end mills Feed 0.203 mm/tooth (0.008 in./tooth) Radial depth of cut 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) Axial depth of cut 25.4 mm (1.000 in.) Cutting fluid Soluble oil (1:20) Tool life end point 0.5 mm More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Segments of a type 321 stainless steel radar coolant-system assembly that broke at a brazed joint between a bellows and a cup because of inadequate bonding between the brazing alloy and the stainless steel. (a) Portions of the broken coolant-system assembly; bellows is at A, cup at B More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 2 Section through the cracked wall of a type 321 stainless steel pressure tube (region A) showing the branched transgranular nature of the crack. The crack origin (arrow B) was at the inner surface of the tube, next to the braze (region C) joining the tube to the reinforcing liner (region More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 14 Type 321 stainless steel heat-exchanger bellows that failed by fatigue originating at heavy weld reinforcement of a longitudinal seam weld. (a) A section of the bellows showing locations of the longitudinal seam weld, the circumferential welds, and the fatigue crack. Dimensions given More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 49 Zinc-induced liquid metal embrittlement in 321 austenitic stainless steel. Etched in Vilella's reagent More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 50 Scanning electron microscope view of grains lost from 321 stainless steel by zinc-induced liquid metal embrittlement. Etched in Vilella's reagent More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 39 Apparent ductile fracture in a 321 stainless steel superheater tube (ASME SA-213 grade TP 321H). (a) Fracture is macroscale brittle because it is on a hoop plane. (b) Intergranular cracking is revealed and at magnification of 4½×. (c) Higher magnification (100×) does not show evidence More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Effect of surface conditions on the fatigue properties of steel (302 to 321 HB) More