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316L (austenitic wrought stainless steel)

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...). SS-100 Superpremium austenitic grade A highly alloyed austenitic grade superior to all other grades of PM stainless steel in corrosion resistance. Its corrosion resistance equals that of wrought 316L. In nonoptimized sintering atmospheres it suffers a smaller loss of corrosion resistance compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... fine precipitates of its compounds in the matrix during sintering. Niobium also enhances creep resistance ( Ref 1 ). The three most popular austenitic PM stainless steels, namely 303L, 304L, and 316L, have similar chromium contents and exhibit very similar strengths. The PM austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Austenitic Alloys The compositions of the standard grades and those of some of the more common custom grades of PM austenitic stainless steels are listed in Table 3 . The low-carbon modifications of the three most popular wrought alloys, namely 303L, 304L, and 316L, make up the standard grades for PM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... An example of corrosion rate data for 304L and 316L wrought and P/M sintered stainless steel after immersion in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 , as a function of immersion time and sintering conditions, is presented in Table 3 ( Ref 9 ). The wrought alloys clearly exhibited the lowest corrosion rates, followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 Plot of percentages of replicate specimens with a given rating versus immersion time. Source: Ref 1 Example of corrosion rating chart for a set of six replicate specimens of sintered 316L stainless steel Table 1 Example of corrosion rating chart for a set...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... on using the benefits of AM for creating new implant designs, austenitic stainless steels stand to benefit the most in using AM in a clinical setting. Fig. 1 (a) Laser powder-bed-fusion-printed 316L stainless steel fracture fixation plates on a build plate; (b) and (c) Fracture fixation plate shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Mo N Nb Ni Si P 304 Austenitic stainless steel bal … 0.08 max … 18–20 … 2.0 max … … … 8–10.5 1.0 max 0.045 max 316L Austenitic stainless steel bal … 0.03 max … 16–18 … 2.0 max 2–3 0.1 max … 10–14 0.75 max 0.045 max 17-4 PH Precipitation-hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... machinability-enhancing additive. However, the addition of MnS to a standard austenitic grade, such as 316L, results in a significant reduction in the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Detrimental effects from MoS 2 addition are much smaller. Austenitic PM stainless steels modified with copper and tin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of chromium. For most austenitic stainless steels, restricting their carbon contents to 0.03% (304L or 316L) or less will prevent sensitization during welding and most heat treatment. ASTM A262 describes several methods for conducting standardized susceptibility tests for austenitic stainless steels. ASTM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-rich carbides in the grain boundaries. Fig. 2 Microstructures of type 316L stainless steel sintered at 1149 °C (2100 °F) (Glyceregia). (a) C is 0.015%, clean and thin grain boundaries. (b) C is 0.07%, necklace type chromium-rich carbide precipitates in grain boundaries. (c) C is 0.11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... with the solubility of carbon in austenitic stainless steels. However, it is known from wrought austenitic stainless steels that nickel contents above 10% decrease carbon solubility and therefore increase susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. For water-atomized grades of 304L and 316L that have nickel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for heat treated materials. (e) Or a matrix (converted) hardness of 55 HRC. Source: MPIF Standard 35, 1997 Edition Fig. 2 Comparison of yield strength, ductility, and shrinkage of type 316L austenitic stainless steel compacts sintered in dissociated ammonia (DA) and hydrogen (H 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to resist corrosion from new processes. Equipment involved in product contact has been constructed largely from austenitic stainless steel 304L (UNS S30403) and 316L (UNS S31603). The satisfactory performance of these materials in most applications, combined with good material availability at acceptable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... component. Spierings et al. conducted a study in which three different PSDs of 316L stainless steel were investigated to determine the impact on the powder-bed process L-PBF ( Ref 31 ). The authors note the importance of balance between both fine and coarse particles, in that a proper distribution would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... stainless steels may be divided into five groups as follows: Conventional austenitics, such as types 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 316, and 317 Stabilized compositions, primarily types 321, 347, and 348 Low-carbon grades, such as types 304L, 316L, and 317L High-nitrogen grades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are intended to loosely identify mechanical property regions for the alloys, rather than to define limits for design purposes. At a temperature of 4 K, considerable data exist for type 316L stainless steel wrought alloy (a common cryogenic structural material). Therefore, Fig. 2 includes a trend band...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of 18-8-Mo stainless steel, and today the most common implantable stainless steels for orthopedic applications are 316L, 22Cr-13Ni-5Mn, and REX-734 ( Ref 2 ). Table 1 shows the chemistries and designations of some commonly implanted stainless steels. The austenitic microstructure of these stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... treating fixtures, and food, paper, and chemical processing equipment. Extensive reviews on the properties and applications of cast stainless steels can be found in Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 . Stainless Steel Casting Alloys Categories Unlike the case of wrought alloy designators, cast stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., it can form directly from austenite. The effects of σ phase on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels are most serious in highly oxidizing environments. With standard grades such as 316L and CF3M, the problem is of practical concern only if the phase is continuous. Although discrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the grain and twin boundaries. Tint etching, which requires a high-quality polish for good results, reveals all of the grains by color contrast. Figure 9(a) shows the grain structure of 316L austenitic stainless steel etched with waterless Kalling's (Kalling's No. 2) reagent, where many, but not all...