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(Other, general, or unspecified) fracture

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the through-thickness or z -axis direction). Plane-strain fracture toughness is particularly pertinent in materials selection because, unlike other measures of toughness, it is independent of specimen configuration. In the plane-strain state, a material is at its lowest point of resistance to unstable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... where η and ε are the fatigue ductility exponent and coefficient respectively, E is the elastic modulus, K I c is the critical stress intensity for fracture. Since then, there have been a number of other similar models in which fatigue is expressed as a function of mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are steel; however, many other materials are used in shaft applications. Moving shafts are often classified as either transmission shafts or machine shafts. Transmission shafts are generally cylindrical, and they transfer motion through attached componentry such as gears, pulleys, and so on. Machine...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to the macroscopic level. The cup-and-cone fracture shown at left in Fig. 1 occurred as a result of appreciable plastic deformation, and, thus, is a ductile fracture. On the other hand, the fracture shown at right in Fig. 1 is a brittle fracture. The sequence of events that culminates in a cup-and-cone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This practice is in general based on ignorance of the principles of engineering, which require that a specific loss of functionality be linked to a specific deficiency in the component. On the other hand, lack of conformance to a particular requirement in no way automatically implies a cause of failure. Also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It is more useful to view both the failure and the failure analysis as multilevel processes that can be explored in many useful ways. The physical failure—a fracture, an explosion, or component damaged by heat or corrosion—is the most obvious. However, there are always other levels of failures that allow...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which may also occur when an overload failure is caused by a combination of ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms. This section only describes the general aspects of fracture mechanisms, as more details are described in other articles in this Volume. Distinguishing characteristics of brittle versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... had no apparent effect on crack growth rates in D357-T6. Fracture toughness, on the other hand, was actually somewhat higher for the welded material. In general, welding produces a very fine microstructure in the fusion zone of Al-Si-Mg castings. It also tends to produce a distribution of very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as the cause of all overload failure, because it does not include failures in which embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar occurrences. Underdesign...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... levels. In other words, a failure should not be viewed as a single event. It is more useful to view both the failure and the failure analysis as multilevel processes that can be explored in many useful ways. The physical failure—a fracture, an explosion, or a component damaged by heat or corrosion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., fatigue properties, fracture toughness, and physical properties of ductile iron and compares them with other cast irons to aid the designer in materials selection. It concludes with information on austempered ductile iron. ductile iron castings austempered ductile iron compressive properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; generally spherical and often coated with oxide Cold shot G 113 Spherical metallic inclusions inside blowholes or other cavities or in surface depressions (see A 311). Composition approximates that of the alloy cast but nearer to that of a eutectic Internal sweating, phosphide sweat G 120...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... aluminum alloys, there is no international accord on casting alloy designations, and other systems are rather universally used overseas ( Ref 15 ). Most systems employ some system based on identifying the major alloying elements, but there are many variations of these. General Characteristics and Typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 2 ) has recently begun using the term “structural substantiation” to mean the generic process of validating the integrity of a structure, regardless of the agency in charge. Certification requirements exist in many other industries, although often under a different name and certainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... be completely flat and featureless. However, engineering alloys are polycrystalline and contain grain and subgrain boundaries, inclusions, dislocations, and other imperfections that affect a propagating cleavage fracture so that true, featureless cleavage is seldom observed. These imperfections and changes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.9781627081993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the specimen. steel or white cast iron) or sometimes pebbles; used to tion of yellow and pale green overglaze colors. Some- pulverize crashed ores or other substances such as pig- times known as chrome yellow. axial winding. In filament-wound reinforced plas- ments or ceramics. tics, a winding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... placed in the joint area, there are some other viable techniques for generating a liquid at an interface to effect a brazement. The most common of these, generally referred to as “eutectic brazing,” relies on the reaction at the interface of an insert material or of the metallic member of a ceramic-metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and the appearance of hot spots that, in turn, reduce coil copper strength there and create a condition favorable for further acceleration of crack widening, as shown in Fig. 7 ( b – d ). This leads to the conclusion that, in addition to other factors, the direction of the coil fracture often has a specific...