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(Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., electronics, hydraulics, semi-conductor equipment, and outdoor recreation products. These industries all benefit from the high strength-to-weight ratio, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, and corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys. Aluminum readily mixes with other metals in the liquid state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... be safely finished by wet barrel methods. Limitations imposed by workpiece size and shape are essentially the same as for steel and other metals. There are two general areas in which wet barrel finishing of aluminum parts is more critical than in processing similar parts made of steel. First...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
.... Lead also has good resistance to corrosion under a wide variety of conditions. Lead is easily alloyed with many other metals and casts with little difficulty. Pouring Temperature and Rate of Cooling Pouring temperature and rate of cooling markedly influence the microstructures and properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the ratio of their areas, and their polarization characteristics. The corrosion rate of lead is usually under anodic control, because the most important determinant generally is the solubility and other physical characteristics of the corrosion products formed at anodic sites. Most of these products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... coatings are classed as very good for these alloys. Polishing and other mechanical finishes are good, but anodized coatings are only fair, because the color is gray. Application Characteristics Alloys 355.0 and C355.0 exhibit good corrosion resistance, but somewhat less than that of 333.0 or 356.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... concentrations the acid becomes oxidizing and this shift usually overshadows other factors in the corrosion behavior of the acid. As a general rule, increases in temperature increase reaction rates, but increasing temperature also tends to drive dissolved gases out of solution so that a reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... sulfate. These sulfur compounds are water soluble and adhere poorly to the zinc surface. They are removed by rain with relative ease, exposing a fresh zinc surface to additional corrosion. In general, zinc dissipates more when exposed to this type of environment than any other atmospheric environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... variety of mechanical properties ( Ref 5 , 6 ), depending on the application. Casting alloys of the 356.0 and 514.0 types also show high resistance to seawater corrosion, and these alloys are used widely for fittings, housings, and other marine parts. Some spar fittings are cast aluminum—either 356.0...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This practice is in general based on ignorance of the principles of engineering, which require that a specific loss of functionality be linked to a specific deficiency in the component. On the other hand, lack of conformance to a particular requirement in no way automatically implies a cause of failure. Also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... involve loss of life, limb, and millions of dollars in property damage. Most metal failures can be adequately analyzed by the metallurgist. Others are more complex and require experts in other engineering disciplines. Sequence of Analysis The carpenter's adage “measure twice and cut once” could...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to the macroscopic level. The cup-and-cone fracture shown at left in Fig. 1 occurred as a result of appreciable plastic deformation, and, thus, is a ductile fracture. On the other hand, the fracture shown at right in Fig. 1 is a brittle fracture. The sequence of events that culminates in a cup-and-cone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It is more useful to view both the failure and the failure analysis as multilevel processes that can be explored in many useful ways. The physical failure—a fracture, an explosion, or component damaged by heat or corrosion—is the most obvious. However, there are always other levels of failures that allow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are steel; however, many other materials are used in shaft applications. Moving shafts are often classified as either transmission shafts or machine shafts. Transmission shafts are generally cylindrical, and they transfer motion through attached componentry such as gears, pulleys, and so on. Machine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of the three original groups of stainless steels—austenitic, ferritic, and martensitic—there is one composition that represents the basic, general-purpose alloy. All other compositions derive from this basic alloy, with specific variations in composition being made to impart very specific properties. The so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... levels. In other words, a failure should not be viewed as a single event. It is more useful to view both the failure and the failure analysis as multilevel processes that can be explored in many useful ways. The physical failure—a fracture, an explosion, or a component damaged by heat or corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005977
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... ) that suppresses any other reactions and thus stops corrosion. The chemical stability of the passive layer depends on the type of surface-finishing treatment. Processes such as electrochemical polishing ( Fig. 1 ) increase the surface concentration of chromium, promoting a thicker and more stable passive layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... the transformation temperatures and can help to stabilize a specific α or β or even generate other metastable phase(s), possibly at low temperatures ( Table 2 ) ( Ref 21 ). These phases as well as their size, arrangement, and microstructure (equiaxed, bimodal, basketweave, lamellar, etc.) significantly impact...
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...% of wire diameter, but usually not deeper than 0.25 mm (0.010 in.). On the other hand, wires of the highest quality (music wire, valve-spring) have only small surface imperfections, generally not deeper than 1 2 % of wire diameter. Some grades can be obtained at moderate cost, with seam depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... had no apparent effect on crack growth rates in D357-T6. Fracture toughness, on the other hand, was actually somewhat higher for the welded material. In general, welding produces a very fine microstructure in the fusion zone of Al-Si-Mg castings. It also tends to produce a distribution of very...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; generally spherical and often coated with oxide Cold shot G 113 Spherical metallic inclusions inside blowholes or other cavities or in surface depressions (see A 311). Composition approximates that of the alloy cast but nearer to that of a eutectic Internal sweating, phosphide sweat G 120...