Low-pressure carburizing (LPC) is one of the most popular case-hardening processes and is applied to increase the fatigue limit of dynamically loaded components. It takes place in a pressure range between 5 and 15 mbar (4 and 11 torr) and at temperature range between 870 and 1050 deg C. The LPC process runs in two different types of equipment: single-chamber furnaces and treatment chambers. This article reviews the use of simulation software for prediction of carbon profiles and typical quality control procedures. It describes the physical principles and typical applications of LPC.
The gas quenching process is usually performed at elevated pressures, and is therefore, mostly referred to as high-pressure gas quenching (HPGQ). This article describes the physical principles of HPGQ; the two main types of equipment used, namely, single-chamber furnaces and cold chambers; and the three gases used, namely, nitrogen, helium, and argon. It also discusses two different groups of fixture materials used, namely, high-nickel-content alloys and carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon materials. The article exemplifies the process of dynamic gas quenching and how core hardness values can be predicted in industrial practices. It also discusses the improvements in distortion control with the application of gas-flow reversing and dynamic gas quenching.