The article discusses the fundamentals of fusion welding processes with an emphasis on the underlying scientific principles. It describes how surface temperature varies on steel with surface power densities that range from 400 to 8000 W/cm2. The article illustrates the spectrum of practical heat intensities used for fusion welding. It contains tables that present information on the thermal diffusivities of common elements and alloys from 20 to 100 °C.
Welding and joining processes are essential for the development of virtually every manufactured product. This article discusses the fundamentals of fusion welding processes, with an emphasis on the underlying scientific principles. It reviews the role of energy-source intensity and the width of the heat-affected zone in fusion welding processes. The article contains figures from which the properties of any heat source can be estimated readily.