Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow hammers, and computer-controlled hammers. It describes the three basic designs of high-energy-rate forging (HERF) machines: the ram and inner frame, two-ram, and controlled energy flow. The article reviews forging mechanical presses, hydraulic presses, drive presses, screw presses, and multiple-ram presses.
This article discusses the significant factors in the selection of forging equipment for a particular process. It describes the characteristics of forging hydraulic presses, mechanical presses, screw presses, and hammers. The article discusses the significant characteristics of these machines that comprise all machine design and performance data, which are pertinent to the economic use of the machines, including the characteristics for load and energy, time-related characteristics, and characteristics for accuracy.