The primary goal of quality control in electron beam (EB) welding is to consistently produce defect-free and structurally sound welds. This article discusses the common procedures for controlling the EB welding process, the control of the essential machine parameters, and the introduction of closed-loop controls and diagnostic feedback systems in the EB welding systems. It reviews the beam diagnostic tools that interrogate the beam to produce a reconstruction of the power density distribution and provide additional information on the size and shape of the EB. Knowledge of these beam parameters can be used to improve process understanding and control. The article also describes the application areas of beam diagnostics: machine characterization, weld parameter transfer, and weld quality control.