This article discusses metal powder processing via hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and HIP cladding when metal powders are being employed in the cladding process. It traces the history of the process and details the equipment, pressing cycle, and densification mechanisms for HIP. The article describes the available process routes for fabricating products using HIP and the steps involved in the production of a part via direct HIP of encapsulated gas-atomized spherical powder. It concludes with information on the microstructures of 316L stainless steel HIP powder metallurgy valve body and a list of the mechanical properties of several powder metallurgy alloys.
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used to eliminate porosity in castings. This article provides the history and an overview of the HIP system. It illustrates the reasons for using HIP and discusses the criteria for selecting HIP process parameters. The main mechanisms by which pores are eliminated during HIP are reviewed. The article describes the effect of HIP on the mechanical properties, shape, and structure of castings as well as the effect of inclusions on as-HIPed properties. It examines the problems encountered in HIP and their solution. The article concludes with information on the economics of HIP system.