This article provides a discussion on general nondestructive evaluation (NDE) science and considerations for specific technique selection. It explains the basic concept of flaw detection and evaluation and probability of detection. The article provides an overview of NDE methods with their applications, limitations, and advantages. It includes details on NDE codes, calibration standards, inspection frequency, guidance on how to perform inspections, applicability, and mandatory and nonmandatory practice. The article also provides tips on where to focus inspections in order to align with the likely areas of damage or degradation and a number of other aspects of inspection.