Brasses are copper alloys with zinc as the principal alloying element. This article provides information on the chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the three types of brasses: alpha, duplex and beta. It briefly discusses the Unified Numbering System designations, compositions, and classifications of wrought brasses and cast brasses. The article provides a discussion on annealing, recrystallization, and grain growth of wrought brasses. Stress relief of wrought brasses, which is typically conducted below the annealing temperatures, is also briefly described.
Bronzes generally are used to describe many different copper-base alloys in which the major alloying addition is neither zinc nor nickel. They are generally classified by their major alloying elements, for example, tin bronzes with phosphorus used as a deoxidizer, aluminum bronzes, nickel-aluminum bronzes, silicon bronzes, and beryllium bronzes. This article briefly discusses the types, hardening mechanisms, heat treatment processes, applications, and mechanical properties of these bronzes and high-copper alloys.