This article presents a summary of the current and new materials and processing techniques for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). Different thermal spraying and postspraying processing techniques are required to produce coatings with optimal performance. For TBCs and EBCs, the elastic modulus, mechanical strength, and toughness values are extremely important in predicting failure behavior under stress and strain conditions, mainly for modeling purposes. Sand and/or volcanic ash particles are molten in the hot zones of turbines and deposited over TBCs and EBCs. They form calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) glassy deposits.