Liquid impingement erosion has been defined as progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to impacts by liquid drops or jets. This article focuses on the core nature of erosion by liquid impingement, due to the greater appreciation of the distinctions between the different forms of erosion. It discusses steam turbine blade erosion, aircraft rain erosion, and rain erosion of wind turbine blades. The article describes the mechanisms of liquid impact erosion and time dependence of erosion rate. It reviews critical empirical observations regarding both impingement variables (velocity, impact angle, droplet size, and physical properties of liquids) and erosion resistance of materials, including the correlation between erosion resistance and mechanical properties and the effects of alloying elements and microstructure. The article also provides information on the ways to combat erosion.
Solid particle erosion (SPE) is the loss of material that results from repeated impact of solid particles energized in a carrier fluid. This article reviews important SPE variables, their effects for different classes of materials, composites and coatings, and the mechanisms and theories proposed to explain SPE. It discusses the SPE of metals, steels, and ceramics, as well as erosion of alloys with coarse, nominally two-phase microstructures in which the second-phase particles (SPPs) are typically large compared with the dimensions of the damage zone created by the impact of one particle. The article summarizes the erosion characteristics of polymer matrix composites (PMCs), metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and erosion-resistant coatings. The combination of parameters included in most erosion models is also summarized.