Modeling will help reduce machining problems and thereby enable more rapid introduction of high-performance materials and components. This article discusses the technical needs of aircraft engine and airframe structural components and modeling of heat-treat-induced residual stress by finite-element residual-stress analysis. It describes the two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) procedures involved in finite-element residual-stress analysis. The article deals with the 2-D and 3-D machining distortion validation on engine-disk-type components. It describes methods for obtaining machining-induced residual stresses, including detailed finite-element analysis of the cutting process, the simple fast-acting mechanistic model, and the semi-empirical linear stress model. The article concludes with information on the modeling benefits and implementation of modeling in a production environment.