This article provides an overview of surface contaminants that may affect the heat treatment processes and end-product quality. It presents information on the chemicals used to clean different surface contaminants of steels. The article discusses three types of cleaning methods, namely, mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical and their effectiveness and applicability. The mechanical cleaning methods include grinding, brushing, steam or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are chemical cleaning methods. The electrochemical cleaning methods include electropolishing, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, and electrolytic pickling. The article provides information on cleanliness measurement methods such as qualitative tests and quantitative tests to ensure product quality. Health hazards that may be associated with each cleaning method and the general control measures to be used for each hazard are tabulated.
This article provides information on the heat-source model, conduction heat-transfer model of parts and fixtures, and the radiation heat-transfer and convection heat-transfer models in a furnace. It describes the two types of furnaces used for heat treating: batch furnaces and continuous furnaces. The heating methods, such as direct-fired heating, radiant-tube heating, and electrical heating, are also discussed. Furnace temperature control is essential to ensure quality heat treatment. The article explains the operating procedure of the automatic temperature controllers used in most furnace operations. Heating simulations can be validated by comparison with measured results in full-scale furnaces. The article also presents several case studies to illustrate the use of the simulations.