Directionally solidified (DS) and single-crystal (SX) superalloys and process technology are contributing to significant advances in turbine engine efficiency and durability. These gains are expected to arise from the development of higher creep strength and improved oxidation-resistant SX alloy compositions as well as from the development of SX casting and fabrication technology to utilize advanced transpiration-cooling schemes. This article provides a detailed discussion on the chemistry and castability of first- and second-generation DS and SX superalloys. It summarizes the chemistry modifications applied to MAR-M 247 to develop CMSX-2 with respect to function and objectives. The article also lists the nominal compositions of first- and second-generation DS and SX superalloys.