This article discusses the tests designed specifically to evaluate the adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of various material systems. It tabulates the characteristics of common types of wear and mechanical surface damage. The article also considers the displaying and analyzing of adhesion, friction, and wear test data. It concludes with a description of devices used for testing adhesion, friction, and wear.
Wear is mechanically-induced surface damage that results in the progressive removal of material. Because different types of wear occur in machinery, many different types of wear tests have been developed to evaluate its effects on materials and surface treatments. Providing an explanation on mechanisms, forms (sliding, impact, and rolling) and causes of wear, this article describes the wear measuring methods, including mass loss method, wear width method, and scar depth method. The units used to report wear vary with type of wear and with the purpose for which the data are to be used. Listing the considerations of tribosystem analysis, the article provides information on selection of ASTM wear test methods grouped by wear type. The article concludes by tabulating the testing geometries, and parameters that are commonly controlled and reported when conducting wear tests.