Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make parts from three-dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies. This article discusses various defects in AM components, such as porosity, inclusions, cracking, and residual stress, that can be avoided by using vendor recommended process parameters and approved materials. It describes the development of process-structure-property-performance modeling. The article explains the practical considerations in nondestructive evaluation for additively manufactured metallic parts. It also examines nondestructive testing (NDT) inspection and characterization methods for each of the manufacturing stages in their natural order. The article provides information on various inspection techniques for completed AM manufactured parts. The various electromagnetic and eddy current techniques that can be used to detect changes to nearsurface geometric anomalies or other defects are also discussed. These include ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, and neutron imaging.
A computational tool would require the contribution of the strengthening mechanisms of metallic material to be predicted and then summed in an appropriate way to derive an estimate of the tensile properties. This article focuses on the modeling of deformation mechanisms pertinent to structural materials, namely, solid-solution strengthening, age/precipitation hardening, dispersion strengthening, grain size reduction, strengthening from cold work, and strengthening from interfaces. It explains the application of predictive models in the atomistic modeling of dislocation structures and cast aluminum property prediction. The article concludes with information on the use of rules-based approaches and data-mining techniques for quantitative predictions of tensile properties.