Electron beam welding (EBW) can produce deep, narrow, and almost parallel-sided welds with low total heat input and relatively narrow heat-affected zones in a wide variety of common and exotic metals. This article focuses on essential parameters of EBW, namely, weld and surface geometry, part configuration, melt-zone configuration, weld atmosphere (vacuum and nonvacuum), and joint design. It describes various aspects considered in EBW of thin and thick metal sections and poorly accessible joints. An overview of scanning and joint tracking techniques for inspection of electron beam-welded joints is also included. The article concludes with discussions on EBW defects, the use of filler metal for weld repair, and the control plans, codes, and specifications of the EBW process.