Computer simulation of microstructural evolution during hot rolling of steels is a major topic of research and development in academia and industry. This article describes the methodology and procedures commonly employed to develop microstructural evolution models to simulate microstructural evolution in steels. It presents an example of the integration of finite element modeling and microstructural evolution models for the simulation of metal flow and microstructural evolution in a hot rolling process.
The primary objectives of the rolling process are to reduce the cross section of the incoming material while improving its properties and to obtain the desired section at the exit from the rolls. This article illustrates a rolling sequence for the fabrication of bars, shapes, and flat products from blooms, billets, and slabs. It describes two methods for shapes or sections: universal rolling and caliber rolling. The article provides information on two-high mills and three-high mills. Specialty mills for thin sheets, namely, the Sendzimir mill and planetary mill, are discussed. The article analyzes the components of a computer controlled system for high-speed mills. Steels and nonferrous materials are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the defects in flat, bar, or shaped products due to heating and rolling practices.