This article provides a broad overview of sliding and adhesive wear, its processes, and its control, with special attention to three general classes of materials: metals, ceramics, and polymers. It discusses the ways in which materials can be damaged and removed during sliding contact. The article explains the physical and chemical nature of sliding surfaces. It presents wear equations, design criteria, and criteria for selection of materials. The article also describes the factors that affect wear performance of hybrid sliding systems. It concludes by providing general guidelines to prevent the sliding and adhesive wear in metals, polymers, and ceramics.
This article describes the techniques for measuring friction, namely, inclined-plane method; friction test methods using weights and pulleys; friction tests of shafts and capstans; other types of friction tests, including standards; microscale friction tests; and friction testing under well-lubricated conditions. The procedural considerations that should be addressed to ensure that valid data are derived from a friction test are discussed. The article explains friction testing geometries, the major considerations implicit in their use as well as friction test parameters, such as speed and load. It also demonstrates how to report friction data and how these data can be entered into a database.