This article introduces the operating principles and modes of operation for high-vacuum (EBW-HV), Medium-vacuum (EBW-MV), and nonvacuum (EBW-NV) electron beam welding. Equipment, process sequence, part preparation, process control, and weld geometry are described for electron beam welding. Advantages are described in terms of welding near heat sensitive components or materials and producing deep penetration or shallow welds with the same equipment.
High-velocity gas motion occurs in and around the arc during welding. This article describes the phenomena of gas flow in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The effect of trace element impurities on GTA weld penetration of selected alloys is presented in a table. The article concludes with a discussion on submerged arc welding (SAW).