The mechanical properties of ductile cast irons are determined largely by the microstructure of the steel matrix in combination with the shape, size, and distribution of the graphite nodules. This article describes the designation of ductile cast irons according to the ASTM International designation system and reviews standard-grade ductile cast irons. An overview of the most commonly used standards related to designation and specification of ductile cast iron is presented in a table. This article discusses the use of low-alloy ductile cast irons at elevated temperatures and the chemical compositions and some mechanical properties of austenitic ductile cast irons. The article concludes with a discussion on heat treatment of austempered ductile iron.
This article discusses some of the factors that are linked directly to the casting design of ductile iron castings. It reviews the choice of molding process, application of draft, and patternmaker's allowance that should be taken into consideration in designing castings. The article describes the solidification shrinkage associated with the volume change that occurs during solidification, as well as strength and stiffness of ductile iron castings. It concludes with a discussion on the thermal deformation and residual stress in ductile iron castings.