Mixtures of acids or acids and salts are of great importance to the chemical process industry (CPI) for use in digestion of solids, as a promoter in reactions, as a scale remover, and as a complexant. This article emphasizes the assessment of the performance of Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo alloys in mixed acids and salts in an objective manner. It tabulates the nominal compositions of pertinent Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo corrosion-resistant alloys. The article describes the acid and acid-plus-salt mixtures classified into the following general categories: nonoxidizing acid mixtures (H 2 SO 4 +H 3 PO 4 ), nonoxidizing acids with halides (H 2 SO 4 +HCl), oxidizing acid mixtures without halides (H 2 SO 4 +HNO 3 ), and oxidizing acid mixtures with halides (HNO 3 +HF). It also illustrates the effect of alloying elements on the corrosion rate in the nonoxidizing mixtures and oxidizing acid mixtures.
This article provides a discussion on the operation of various methods and sensors that have been used or have the potential to be used for on-line, real-time monitoring of localized corrosion. These include the electrochemical noise (ECN) method, nonelectrochemical methods, the galvanically coupled differential flow cell, galvanically coupled crevice cell, coupled multielectrode sensor, and electrochemical biofilm activity sensor.