Cold heading is typically a high-speed process where a blank is progressively moved through a multi-station machine. This article discusses various cold heading process parameters, such as upset length ratio, upset diameter ratio, upset strain, and process sequence design. It describes the various components of a cold-heading machine and the tools used in the cold heading process. These include headers, transfer headers, bolt makers, nut formers, and parts formers. The article explains the operations required for preparing stock for cold heading, including heat treating, drawing to size, machining, descaling, cutting to length, and lubricating. It lists the advantages of the cold heading over machining. Materials selection criteria for dies and punches in cold heading are also described. The article provides examples that demonstrate tolerance capabilities and show dimensional variations obtained in production runs of specific cold-headed products. It concludes with a discussion on the applications of warm heading.
Cold extrusion is a push-through compressive forming process with the starting material (billet/slug) at room temperature. This article provides information on the different types of steels that can be cold extruded. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses that are specifically designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap lubricant and polymer lubricants. The article describes several procedures for extruding specific steel parts such as tubular parts and stepped shafts. It lists problems such as tool breakage and galling or scoring of tools and explains cold extrusion of aluminum, copper, and nickel alloy parts. The article also discusses the impact extrusion of magnesium alloys.