This article distinguishes between a surface finish and a surface texture. It provides information on the surface integrity technology that describes and controls the many possible alterations produced in a surface layer during manufacture, including their effects on material properties and the performance of the surface in service. The types of surface alterations associated with metal removal practices are described. The article discusses the surface roughness, surface integrity, and produced in manufacturing processes, and mechanical property effects. Surface alterations associated with metal removal practices of traditional and nontraditional machining operations, as well as their effect on the static mechanical properties of materials, are reviewed. Finally, the article provides guidelines for material removal, postprocessing, and inspection.