This article describes the physical principles of brazing with illustrations and details elements of the brazing process. The elements of brazing process include filler-metal flow, base-metal characteristics, filler-metal characteristics, surface preparation, joint design and clearance, temperature and time, rate and source of heating, and protection by an atmosphere or flux. The article explains the different types of brazing processes: manual torch brazing, furnace brazing, induction brazing, dip brazing, resistance brazing, infrared (quartz) brazing, exothermic brazing, electron-beam and laser brazing, microwave brazing, and braze welding.
Soldering is defined as a joining process by which two substrates are bonded together using a filler metal with a liquidus temperature. This article provides an overview of fundamentals of soldering and presents guidelines for flux selection. Types of fluxes, including rosin-base fluxes, organic fluxes, inorganic fluxes, and synthetically activated fluxes, are reviewed. The article describes the joint design and precleaning and surface preparation for soldering. It addresses some general considerations in the soldering of electronic devices. Soldering process parameters, affecting wetting and spreading phenomena, such as temperature, time, vapor pressure, metallurgical and chemical nature of the surfaces, and surface geometry, are discussed. The article also describes the applications of furnace soldering, resistance soldering, infrared soldering, and ultrasonic soldering. It contains a table that lists tests commonly used to evaluate the solderability properties of selected soldered components.