Thin-wall gray cast iron (TWGCI) can be seen as a potential material for the preparation of lightweight castings in automotive engineering applications. This article discusses the most important challenges for TWGCI: cooling rate, solidification, macrostructure, microstructure, and chilling tendency. It reviews the tensile properties and thermophysical properties of gray cast iron. The article describes the variables that influence molten iron preparation: charge materials, melting furnace thermal regime, chemical composition, modification and inoculation treatment, holding time/pouring procedure, mold properties (mold temperature, thermophysical properties of mold and mold coating), and casting design.
From the point of view of economics and ecology, thin-wall ductile iron (TWDI) castings can compete in terms of mechanical properties with the light castings made of aluminum alloys. This article discusses the effect of technological factors on the cooling rate and physicochemical state of the liquid metal for preparing thin-wall castings with good mechanical properties and performance while avoiding casting defects. It describes a variety of defects that may appear during the production of TWDI castings, such as casting skin anomalies (e.g., flake graphite, graphite segregation), graphite clusters, exploded graphite, slag inclusions, shrinkage porosity, eutectic chill and secondary carbides, and cold shuts. The article reviews the tensile, fatigue, impact, and wear properties of TWDI castings. It provides information on the production and applications of TWDI castings.