This article discusses the compositions, properties, and typical applications for ductile irons that are defined by U.S. and international standards . It describes the various methods used to test and inspect the metallurgical control processes in ductile iron production. The article discusses the effect of composition, graphite shape, and section size on the properties of ductile iron. The article also describes the mechanical properties of ductile iron at elevated temperatures. The heat treatment of ductile iron castings produces a significant difference in mechanical properties from as-cast ductile iron. A ductile iron generally has higher hardenability than a eutectoid steel with comparable alloy content. The article also discusses the physical properties of ductile iron, including density, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, electrical resistivity, and magnetic properties. Ductile iron has been chosen in many instances on the basis of significantly lower machining costs, which resulted in lower overall cost of the part.