This article begins by describing the designations of cast and wrought aluminum alloys. It explains the effects of main alloying elements in aluminum alloys: boron, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, silicon, sodium, strontium, titanium, and zinc. The article describes the microstructure of cast and wrought aluminum alloys and the various strengthening mechanisms, including solid solution, grain refinement, strain or work hardening, precipitation (or age) hardening, and dispersoid strengthening. The article explicates the tribological behavior of aluminum alloys, aluminum-base composites, and metal-matrix composites. It presents the effect of material-related parameters and external factors on wear behavior and transitions of aluminum-silicon alloys. The article also presents the most important factors affecting the dry sliding wear behavior of particle-reinforced aluminum-base composites against a steel counterface.