The gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process derives the heat for welding from an electric arc established between a tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. This article provides a discussion on the basic operation principles, advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and applications of the process. It describes the equipment used for GTAW, namely, power supplies, torch construction and electrodes, shielding gases, and filler metals as well as the GTAW welding procedures. The article concludes with a review of the safety precautions to avoid possible hazards during the GTAW process: electrical shock, fumes and gases, arc radiation, and fire and explosion.
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is suited for applications involving long, continuous welds. This article describes the operating principle, application, advantages, limitations, power source, equipment, and fluxes in SAW. It reviews three different types of electrodes manufactured for SAW: solid, cored, and strip. The article highlights the factors to be considered for controlling the welding process, including fit-up of work, travel speed, and flux depth. It also evaluates the defects that occur in SAW: lack of fusion, slag entrapment, solidification cracking, and hydrogen cracking. Finally, the article provides information on the safety measures to be followed in this process.