Sand casting processes are typically classified according to the type of binder present in the molding sand mixture. This article discusses common sand casting processes and design considerations related to shape, gating, feeding, and pattern making methods. It describes the composition of sand and binder normally used, and provides information on the aluminum casting alloys produced. The article discusses precision sand casting and sand reclamation, and includes information on health and safety considerations.
The properties of copper alloys occur in unique combinations found in no other alloy system. This article focuses on the major and minor alloying additions and their impact on the properties of copper. It describes major alloying additions, such as zinc, tin, lead, aluminum, silicon, nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low-pressure die casting. The article provides information on the types of copper castings and tabulates the nominal chemical composition and mechanical properties of several cast alloys.