This article focuses on the mineral and organic acid cleaning of iron and steel. It begins with a discussion on the application methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article then describes the advantages and disadvantages of organic acid cleaning. Applications, including boiler cleaning, stainless steel cleaning, and removal of iron- and copper-bearing deposits, are discussed. The article concludes with an overview of acid cleaning of nonferrous alloys.