Corrosion, fatigue, and their synergistic interactions are among the principal causes of damage to aircraft structures. This article describes the aircraft corrosion fatigue assessment in the context of different approaches used to manage aircraft structural integrity, schedule aircraft inspection intervals, and perform repair and maintenance of aircraft in service. It illustrates the types of corrosive attack observed in aircraft structures, including uniform, galvanic, pitting, filiform, fretting, intergranular, exfoliation corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The article discusses geometric parameters such as pit dimensions, surface roughness, loss of metal thickness, and volume increase due to pillowing to quantitatively characterize the types of corrosion. It also explains the two most common fatigue life assessment methods used in the military aerospace industry, namely, fatigue crack initiation and crack growth analysis.